What is meant by ‘rates of reaction’?
The rate of reaction or speed of reaction for a reactant or product in a particular reaction is how fast or slow it takes for a reaction to occur. For example, the oxidation of iron is a slow reaction which can take many years, however the combustion of butane in a fire is a reaction that takes place in fractions of a second.
Factors effecting rates of reaction
Factors can change the rate (or speed) in which a reaction takes place; this can result in making a slower reaction, or a faster reaction. These factors are:- * Temperature
* Concentration and pressure
* Physical state
* Surface area
Temperature affects the rate of reaction because when you conduct a reaction at a high temperature, more energy is being given to the particles which makes them move faster. Thus this means that there will be more collisions occurring between the particles. However the temperature increases the rate of reaction mainly due to the fact that more of the particles that are colliding will have the necessary energy needed to result in more successful collisions. Reaction rates usually double as the temperature increases every 10 degrees Celsius, even though the effect of the temperature increase could be much larger or smaller than this. So there are basically two factors to consider about the effect of rising temperatures: * Rising temperatures will increase the energy of the particles. * This will increase the speed of the moving particles, resulting in more successful collisions of particles, as they now have the required ‘activation energy’. These two factors result in the rate of the reaction increasing. Concentration and pressure:
In cases for many reactions involving liquids or gases, increasing the concentration of the reactants increases the rate of reaction. Collisions involving two particles
The same principle applies if the reaction involves collision between two...
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