Factors Affecting the Successful Implementation of Ict

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qFactors Affecting the Successful Implementation of ICT
Projects in Government
David Gichoya,
Research School of Informatics, Loughborough University, UK
D.M.Gichoya@lboro.ac.uk
Abstract: A government is a huge and complex organisation, whose operations and strategic focus could be greatly enhanced by the well focussed application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to support improvements in productivity, management effectiveness and ultimately, the quality of services offered to citizens. While the benefits of ICT in government cannot be disputed, there are several concerns about its success as well as the strategies to be adopted in implementation of systems in various countries. In this paper, the characteristic challenges that developing nations face, which make ICT implementation in government fail to succeed are identified and synthesised. The paper presents results of literature review of case studies from both developed and developing countries and preliminary studies grounded in the Kenya e-Government reality. The key factors are identified, synthesised and categorised under common broad categories. This results in a rich picture of ICT implementation experience that helps to identify possible solutions. A descriptive framework for categorising key factors in ICT implementation in government illustrated with references to the literature is proposed. The input variables are categorised into factors for success (drivers and enablers), and factors for failure (barriers and inhibitors). The output variables are categorized into organisational and technological benefits. Finally, an action for success is proposed. This action includes suggestions for increasing the impact of factors for success while reducing the impact of factors for failure and use of available good practice.

Keywords: Government informatics, ICT projects implementation, e-Government, information system, ICT success and failure

applied to various phenomena (Beynon-Davies
2002). Following this definition of informatics,
government informatics can be defined as the
application of information, information systems
and information technology within government.
This therefore includes application of eGovernment which is “primarily to do with making the delivery of government services more
efficient” (Bannister, Remenyi 2005).

1. Background
With the emergence of information and
communication technologies (ICTs), and eGovernment, it is possible to improve efficiency and effectiveness of internal administration within
government and to re-locate government service
from government offices to locations closer to the
citizens. Examples of such locations are cyber
café’, telecenters or a personal computer at home
or office. While the benefits of ICT in government
cannot be disputed, there are several concerns
about its success as well as the strategies to be
adopted in implementation of systems in various
countries. This paper therefore presents the
findings of a literature review, knowledge acquired
from reviewed case studies from developing
countries and a preliminary study grounded on
Kenyan government. The paper considers the
characteristic challenges that developing nations
face, which make ICT implementation in
government fail to succeed. A descriptive
framework for categorising key factors in ICT
implementation in government and an action for
success are proposed. The action for success is
presented as response to situation specific
challenges.

In support of government informatics, Tapscott
(1995, p.xv) argues that ICT causes a “paradigm
shift” introducing “the age of network intelligence”,
reinventing
businesses,
governments
and
individuals. Ndou (2004, p.2) quoting Kaufman
(1977) observes, “the traditional bureaucratic
paradigm, characterised by internal productive
efficiency,
functional
rationality,
departmentalisation, hierarchical control and rulebased management is being...
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