Factors Affecting the Passing Rate of Ece Board Examinees

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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This Chapter presents the Relevant Theories, Related Literature and Studies, Conceptual Framework, Hypothesis and the Definition of Terms used in the study.

Relevant Theories
There are two theories which are considered relevant in this study, namely: Goal Setting Theory of Motiviation by Dr. Edwin Locke (1990), and Cognitive Learning Theory.
Goal Setting Theory states that goal setting is essentially linked to task performance. It states that specific and challenging goals along with appropriate feedback contribute to higher and better task performance. In simple words, goals indicate and give direction to an employee about what needs to be done and how much efforts are required to be put in. Locke's theory operates on the premise that individuals create goals by making careful decisions to do so and are compelled toward those goals by virtue of the goal having been set. Basically, Locke's theory states that if an individual sets goals, he will be motivated to achieve those goals by virtue of having set them. Several elements must exist in order for the goal-setting effect to take place. Goals must be clear, challenging and attainable, and there must be some method of receiving feedback. Locke finds that the goal itself is not the motivator, but rather the perceived difference between what was actually attained and what had been planned for.

The goal setting theory is a technique used to raise incentives so that students will complete work quickly and effectively, it will be of help to graduates who are conducting their review and preparations for the board exam. It leads to better performance by increasing motivation and efforts, but also through increasing and improving the feedback quality.

The Cognitive Learning Theory explained why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things. This theory are divided into two specific theories: the Social Cognitive Theory, and the Cognitive Behavioral Theory. In the Social Cognitive Theory, there are 3 variables considered: behavioral factors, environmental factors (extrinsic) and personal factors (intrinsic). These 3 variables in Social Cognitive Theory are said to be interrelated with each other, causing learning to occur. An individual’s personal experience can converge with the behavioral determinants and the environmental factors. Cognitive Behavioral Theory describes the role of cognition (knowing) to determining and predicting the behavioral pattern of an individual. This theory was developed by Aaron Beck. The Cognitive Behavioral Theory says that individuals tend to form self-concepts that affect the behavior they display. These concepts can be positive or negative and can be affected by a person’s environment.

In the cognitive process of a person, it is affected by factors like behavioral, environmental, and personal. This factors are should be considered to increase the student’s performance in preparing for the board exam. One’s cognitive competencies are modified by external factors such as a supportive parent, stressful environment or a hot climate. So if a student have a pleasant environment, he will have a positive behavior therefore increasing his/her performance.

Related Literature
Electronics Engineering
Electronic engineering as a profession sprang from technological improvements in the telegraph industry in the late 19th century and the radio and the telephone industries in the early 20th century. People were attracted to radio by the technical fascination it inspired, first in receiving and then in transmitting. Many who went into broadcasting in the 1920s were only 'amateurs' in the period before World War I.

The modern discipline of electronic engineering was to a large extent born out of telephone, radio, and television equipment development and the large amount of electronic systems development during World War II of radar,...
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