3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter discusses the study design and methodology used in collecting and analyzing data on the assessment of the factors affecting income generation in the slums by looking at the target population, sampling design and procedure, data collection and instruments and, procedure validity and reliability of instruments and data analysis.
3.2 Research Design
This research was adopted as descriptive case study research design. The design is preferred for it is fact finding and descriptive in the capacity of establishing the truth. Neuman (2000:74) infers that descriptive research had the capacity to describe the present status of phenomena, determining the nature of the prevailing conditions, practices and attitudes and seeking accurate descriptions of activities. This study seeks to assess factors affecting income generation in the slums.
3.3 Target Population
Population is defined as the total number of aggregate of all units possessing certain characteristics from which sample of study can be derived. It is a collection of all measurements of a particular type of interest to the decision maker. The success of any research depends on the extraction of the required information from the appropriate population. However in case of a research involving a large number of the population under study, then a sample needs to be drawn from the entire population that has sufficient characteristics representing the population to draw accurate inferences from it.
The study was conducted in the Majengo slums, Mombasa and it targeted approximately 40 entrepreneurs in different areas of business.
3.4 Sampling Design and Procedure
A sample is a small proportion of a population selected for observation and analysis (Best and Khan, 2004). Sampling on the other hand means selecting a given number of subjects from a definite population as a representative of that population. A sample procedure is a definite plan determined before any data is collected for obtaining a sample from a given population.
Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample.
3.5 Data Collection Instruments
Data was collected by use of open and closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires consisted of questions, which had both multiple choice and structured questions. The researcher was personally administered the questionnaires to ensure a high return rate. Interview schedule was also administered to the owners of the businesses. Some financial records were used to obtain data on the performance of the businesses.
3.5.1 Data collection procedure
Data used was from primary and secondary sources. The financial records were used to source secondary data. The main research instruments used to collect primary data was the questionnaires and interview schedules. The researcher administered the questionnaires to the selected respondents and also interviewed the owners and managers of the businesses in their respective areas to verify data that was obtained.
3.4.2 Validity of Research Instruments
According to Mugenda and Mugenda (1999) validity refers to the accuracy and meaningfulness of inferences, which are based on the research results. It is the degree to which results obtained from the analysis of the data actually represent the phenomenon under study. Content validity of the instrument was determined in two ways; first, the researcher discussed the items in the instrument with colleagues and other lecturers in the School of Business and Economics. The advice given by these people helped the researcher determine the validity of the research instrument.
Secondly, piloting was carried out to establish the validity of the research instrument. For the research instrument to be considered valid, the content selected and included in the questionnaire was a must to be relevant to the variable being investigated Mugenda and Mugenda (1999)....