Factors Affecting Foam Formation & Stability

Topics: Carbon dioxide, Bread, Leavening agent Pages: 11 (3220 words) Published: July 6, 2013
school of chemical and life sciences|
Effects of Various Raising Agents on Physical Appearance in Baked Muffins
Prepared for Dr Alvin Teo|

Done By: FS1204

Chua Wei Lin (121878A)
Lim Woon Ling (125916L)
Naageswari Duriraju (122586M)
Siti Saleha Binte Adam (124654X)
Meenakshi (120751A)

1st August 2012

Many types of raising agents are used in baking products. Raising agents release carbon dioxide during baking, allowing the products to rise. In our experiment, we are investigating the effect of different raising agents on the physical appearance of muffins. The raising agents used are baking powder, baking soda and yeast. Based on thorough research, we hypothesize that baking powder will produce the heaviest muffins while baking soda will produce muffins with the largest circumference and height. We carried out three experiments in total. In each experiment, four sets of three muffins each were made. Baking powder, baking soda and yeast were added to three of the four sets. The fourth (control) contained no raising agent. The height and weight were measured before and after baking, while the circumference was measured after baking. The muffins were baked in a standard home oven, at 180°C for 20 minutes. Baking soda produced dark golden-brown muffins and they were the largest and tallest while the ones with baking powder were golden-brown and weighed the most. The control produced light-yellow muffins, and they are the smallest and raised the least. In conclusion, different raising agents each have different reactivity. This greatly affects the physical appearance of baked products.


Table of Contents2
Materials and Methodology4

The first known breads were flat and described as unleavened, which means they do not contain any raising agents. However, consumers now prefer light, airy and soft breads, pastries, and other baked products. Thus, raising agents are needed. Raising agents work by releasing gas when the mixture is heated, causing it to rise.

Raising agents are substances added into batters or doughs, causing foaming actions. Also known as leavening agents, they react with heat, moisture or acidity to produce bubbles of gases within the dough. Initially, the batter or flour mixture contains small air bubbles when put into the oven. Upon heating, gas bubbles (Air, Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour) expand and the mixture is pushed up. Further heating sets the mixture and the holes left by the gas bubbles remain. This gives the baked products their soft, light and spongy textures. In total, there are two types of raising agents – Chemical and Biological (Natural).

Chemical agents are powders that need liquid and heat to produce carbon dioxide, which help to raise the baked products. Baking Powder, Bicarbonate of Soda (Baking Soda) and Potassium Bitartrate (Cream of Tartar) are some examples.

Biological agents like yeast is a living organism that gives off carbon dioxide gas as by-product during fermentation. This helps aerate the dough and this by-product is responsible for creating the distinctive flavour of yeast breads. Yeast can also be used in carbonated beverages like beer. Some other biological agents include buttermilk, yogurt and ginger beer.

Materials (Equipments)
Table 1.1 – List of Equipment used
1 Oven| 1 Scraper| 4 Bowls| Plain Paper muffin cases| 1 Digital Camera| 1 Metal Spoon| 1 Baking Tray| 1 Set of measuring Spoons| 1 Chef’s Knife| 4 mixing bowls| 1 Weighing Scale| 1 Pair of Oven Glove| 1 sieve| 1 Metal Ruler| Toothpicks| 1 Muffin patty tray| 1 Electrical Hand-Held Beater| | | |

Materials (Control and Variable Recipe)

Table 1.2 – Recipes for Control and Variables

Control | Variable 1| Variable 2| Variable 3|
100g Plain flour 75g...
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