SULEIMAN S. SAIDU1, GRIGORI D. AFANASIEV1
1Department of Intensive Technology in Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Animal Science, Rsau-TAA Named After K.A. Timiryazeva, 127550, Moscow Russia.
Running title: Eggs Hatchability
Correspondence : Suleiman S. Saidu 1Department of Intensive Technology in Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Animal Science, Rsau-TAA Named After K.A. Timiryazeva, 127550, Moscow Russia. (E-mail: email@example.com)
Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica ) has widely distributed in various parts of the world. Japanese quail has been used as a good source for egg and meat, it has been also used in many areas of biological research. It grows rapidly to maturity , the Coturnix quail matures sexually of six weeks after hatching (Wilbor and Wilson 1972), its mating activity was at its maximum between 70 and 210 days of age (Sefton A.E and Siegel,1973) . It has short incubation period and high rate of lay ,the quail may lay more than 300 eggs in their first year of production (Wilbor et al 1961). Its small size (150g at maturity) permits the storage of large numbers of birds in a relatively small space , consumes less feed in the adult stages which is much less than that of the chicken . Shortly , it is very economical bird as an experimental . bird or as commercial producing bird . Obtaining a high production and reproduction performance in Japanese quail requires some collective factors work at it's best . Behavioral factors are the most factors control bird to life and its welfare. Stocking density (space allowed for bird to live) even in cages or floor pens , mating ratio (male to female ratio) in the flock and type of housing are some of the most important elements of the managerial factor that control the production and reproduction performance of quail breeding flock (Narahari et al. 1988) . The former managerial factors are important to be consideration in Japanese quail to obtain body weight gain, high fertility, hatchability, egg production and better food utilization .
KEYWORDS: humidity, temperature, egg’s shape, egg’s storage, hatchability.
Long egg storage periods affect the pH of the albumen due to loss of carbon dioxide (Dawes, 1975), which is important in maintaining embryonic viability, and result in decreased hatchability (Kirk et al., 1980; Deeming, 2000; Heier & Jarp 2001). Eggs incubated on the day of lay produced heavier chicks than eggs stored for a number of days (Reis et al., 1997). Small eggs also produced smaller chickens with a lower performance than chickens hatched from larger eggs (Among et al., 1984; Farooq et al., 2001). Although numerous studies have shown that there is strong positive correlation between pre-incubation egg weight, length of storage periods, hatchlings weight and growth performance of different species of poultry (Ayorinde et al., 1994; Danczak & Majewska, 1999; McLoughlin & Gous, 1999; Farooq et al., 2001; Heier & Jarp, 2001; Nahm, 2001), the effects of length of egg storage and hatching egg weight on the hatchability and subsequent growth performance of quail have not been fully investigated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of egg weight and length of storage on hatchability and subsequent growth performance of quail and to determine the optimal pre-incubation egg storage period and optimal weight of eggs destined for hatching. Temperature is the most important factor affecting embryonic development, hatchability and post hatch performance. Optimum incubation temperature is normally defined as that required to achieve maximum hatchability ROMAO, J.M. et al. 2009.