The life of a metropolis depends upon its transportation system, and a fit urban
economy requires that transport be smooth and well-organized. The automobile-centred, unplanned travel networks of today are proving progressively more inefficient as urban activity and congestion grow. For several reasons we need to know whether the growth in car use will continue in the future. There are a number of societal developments that require a critical look at traffic forecasts. Further, the expenses of continuing to support automobilebased transport systems are forbidding, in terms of space absorbed for highways, energy requirements, and ecological consequences (Business Studies, Lesson 10; Transport, treascc10).
Aware of these factors, most metropolitan areas are moving to organize and make their transport systems more efficient , and to make available mass transit alternatives to the automobile. These shifts have required urban transportation planners to forecast perfectly the response of transportation demand to changes in the attributes of the transport system. Traditional urban transportation planning models, developed primarily to forecast the effect of long-run changes in population demography on travel demand in a n inactive transportation system, have proved suited and undependable in providing answers to the policy questions facing planners.
The development and improvement of travel forecasting procedures, as well as the overall transportation study philosophy and methods of analyses, have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the urban transportation problem. Urban traffic patterns now and in the future are a function of:
The pattern of land use in an area, inc luding the location and intensity of use;
The various social and economic characteristics of the population of an area; and
The type and extent of the transportation facilities available in an area. Understanding the relationship among the existing and pla nned transportation
facilities and services is critical in understanding the transportation needs for the future. However, the relationship between these transportation facilities and services and how the trip type and travel mode choice is made for moving both people and goods also shapes and influences the future demand on the area transportation system. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the factors influencing choice of mode in transportation and the overall implication in urban and regional planning.
Transportation refers to the activity that facilitates physical movement of goods as
well as individuals from one place to another. In business, it is considered as an auxiliary to trade, that means, it supports trade and industry in carrying raw materials to the place of production and distributing finished products for consumption. Individuals or business firms that engage themselves in such activities are called transporters. Generally, transporters carry raw material, finished products, passengers, etc. from one plac e to another. So it removes the distance barrier. Now-a-days goods produced at one place are readily available at distant places. People move freely throughout the world because of transport. It is associated with every step of our life.
IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPORTATION
a. Enhances standard of living: Easy means of transport facilitates large-scale production at low costs. It gives consumers the choice to make use of different quantities of goods at different prices. So it raises the standard of living of the people. b. Helps during emergencies and natural calamities: In times of national crisis, due to war or internal disturbance, transport helps in quick movement of troops and the supplies needed in the operation.
c. Helps in creation of employment: Transport provides employment opportunity to individuals as drivers, conductors, pilots, cabin crew, captain of the ship, etc....