University of Rizal System
College of Education
Term paper for Facilitating Learning
Bloom’s taxonomy of objectives
Benjamin Samuel Bloom (February 21, 1913 – September 13, 1999 He was born on February 21, 1913, in Lansford, Pennsylvania. He earned his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the Pennsylvania State University in 1935. In March 1942, he received his education Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. Bloom died on September 13, 1999. He is American educational psychologist who made contributions to the classification of educational objectives and to the theory of mastery-learning. He also directed a research team which conducted a major investigation into the development of exceptional talent whose results are relevant to the question of eminence, exceptional achievement, and greatness.
Bloom's Taxonomy of objectives
Is a classification of learning objectives within education proposed in 1956 by a committee of educators chaired by Benjamin Bloom who also edited the first volume of the standard text, Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals] (1956) Although named after Bloom, the publication followed a series of conferences from 1949 to 1953, which were designed to improve communication between educators on the design of curricula and examinations. At this meeting, interest was expressed in a theoretical framework which could be used to facilitate communication among examiners. This group felt that such a framework could do much to promote the exchange of test materials and ideas about testing. In addition, it could be helpful in stimulating research on examining and on the relations between examining and education. After considerable discussion, there was agreement that such a theoretical framework might best be obtained through a system of classifying the goals of the educational process, since educational objectives provide the basis for building curricula and tests and represent the starting point for much of our educational research. It refers to a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains": Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor (sometimes loosely described as knowing/head, feeling/heart and doing/hands respectively). Within the domains, learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels. A goal of Bloom's Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education. Bloom's Taxonomy is considered to be a foundational and essential element within the education community as evidenced in the 1981 survey significant writings that have influenced the curriculum: 1906-1981, by H.G. Shane and the 1994 yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. A mythology has grown around the taxonomy, possibly due to many people learning about the taxonomy through second hand information. Bloom himself considered the Handbook One of the most widely cited yet least read books in American education.
Skills in the cognitive domain revolve around knowledge, comprehension, and critical thinking on a particular topic. Traditional education tends to emphasize the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives. There are six levels in the taxonomy, moving through the lowest order processes to the highest: Knowledge
Exhibit memory of previously learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers * Knowledge of specifics - terminology, specific facts
* Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics - conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology * Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field - principles and...