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The term personality in psychology is the sum total of the physical, mental, emotional and social characteristics of an individual. It can also be defined as the organised pattern of behavioural characteristics of the individual. In psychology there are different approaches to personality and one is the ‘trait’ approach. The trait approach to personality is one of the major theoretical areas. The trait theory suggests that individual personalities are composed of different traits i.e. outgoing, kind etc. One psychologist who follows this approach is Hans Eysenck. Eysenck developed a personality model based upon just two universal traits. These are as follows;
2. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability
This allowed him to use EPI personality tests to establish different traits between people and the possible results looks like this:
In this investigation I will be testing the concepts of reliability and validity of the EPI. What is Validity?
Validity refers to whether a test measures what it is supposed to measure; in this case does a personality test actually measure a person’s personality. There are many different types of validity and some of these are ‘internal’, ‘face’ and ‘ecological’. Internal validity basically involves whether or not it is a fair test. Face validity is basically the same as the general concept of validity. If there is a lack of face validity the results may not be taken seriously by other psychologists. Finally Ecological validity is whether or not your results reflect real life situations.
What is Reliability?
Reliability refers to whether a psychometric test or other tests measure consistently. There are also different types of this; some of the main ones are ‘Parallel form’, ‘Test-Retest’ and ‘Inter-rater’. Parallel form reliability is measuring whether two or more versions of the same test measure in the same ways. Test-Retest reliability is measuring whether a test is reliable over time i.e. after the participant has forgotten their previous results then testing again for consistency. Inter-rater reliability is where psychologists make observations individually and then collaborate to compare results.
There will be a significant positive correlation between the E scores of form A and B and the N scores of form A and B.
There is no correlation between the E and N scores of either form, and any correlation that is seen is completely due to chance.
I will be using 15 participants all of which are A-level psychology students. In my investigation there is 3 males and 12 females, all aged between 16 and 17 years of age. The materials I used were a shortened version of the EPI forms (A and B), a scoring sheet and a list of thirty two words taken from Eysenck’s personality types. Each participant firstly was asked to write out a short paragraph describing their personality and where asked to be as honest as possible. They then were asked to pick out some words to describe themselves from the list of thirty two words from Eysenck’s personality types. Next each participant was asked to answer both questionnaires and work out what their E =and N scores were for both tests. Results:
The results I got from this are below:
Participant| Form A Form B| Form A Form B| | E Score| E Score| N Score| N Score|
1 (Male)23456 (Male)7891011 (Male)12131415Median| 1011641069473968556| 512679114263958486| 33698371056697636| 32788410865497677|
An example of one of the personality...