Eye Disorders

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  • Topic: Conjunctivitis, Ophthalmology, Keratitis
  • Pages : 13 (3316 words )
  • Download(s) : 102
  • Published : March 2, 2013
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BLEPHARITIS
* It is a common chronic bilateral infection of the eyelids. The lids are rimmed with scales or crust on the lid margin and lashes. Signs and symptoms:
* Swelling
* Redness
* Crust of dried mucus on the lids
* Individual report foreign sensation on the eye
* There are red eyelids margins, flaking and itching, burning sensation, and loss of lashes. * Light sensitivity, conjunctivitis and possible corneal inflammation may occur. Causes:
* Bacteria (staphylococcus aureus)
* Seborrhic skin condition such as flaking, redness, and irritation * Recurrent styes of the upper of lower lid
Types
* Ulcerative blepharitis- is caused by bacterial infection * Non-ulceratice blepharitis- may be caused by psoriasis, seborrhea, or an allergic response. Diagnosis is made by clinical examination and laboratory test may be done to isolate the causative agent. Individual;s with chronic disease such as diabetes, gout, anemia, and chronic infections of the mouth and or throat are at great risk. -it is stubborn to treat and is often resistant to various therapies. - topical anti-infective ointments and drops are used but by mainstay of treatment is by the used of eyelid scrubs. * STAPHYLOCOCCAL BLEPHARITIS

* Ulcerative and more serious due to involvement of the base of hair follicles. Permanent scarring may result. * SEBORRHEIC BLEPHARITIS
* Eyelids are erythematous and the margins are covered with granular crust.

Medical Management:
* In mild cases, it is treated with eyelid margin scrub at least once daily(baby shampoo may be used) * If caused by bacteria, antibiotic ointment is prescribed 1-4 times per day to eyelid margin. Nursing intervention

* Teach patient to scrub eyelid margin with cotton to removed flaking and then apply ointment with cotton swab as directed.

HORDEOLUM (STY)
* It is an infection of the sebaceous glands, and follicles of the lid margin. * EXTERNAL HORDEOLUM involves the hair follicles of the eyelid margin. Signs and symptoms:
* Rapid development of red, swollen, circumscribed and acutely tendered area. * Pain, foreign body sensation, and pustule may be present. Causes:
* Bacteria such as staphylococcus and seborrhea

Management :
* Treatment usually consists of warm soaks to help promote drainage four times a day until it improves, good hand washing and eyelid hygiene, and possible application of ointment antibiotic. * In some cases incision and drainage in the office with local anesthesia may be necessary. Nursing intervention:

* Teach patient how to clean eyelid margins and not to squeeze the stye. * If there is tendency of recurrence teach the patient to perform lid scrub daily.

CHALAZION
* It is a chronic inflammatory granuloma of the meibomian (sebaceous) glands in the lid. Causes:
* It may evolve from hordoleum
* It may also occur as a response to material released in the lid when a blocked gland ruptures. Signs and symptoms:
* Appear on the upper lid as swollen, tender, reddened area that may be painful. Management:
* Initial treatment is similar to that of hordoleum.
* If warm, moist compresses are ineffective in causing spontaneous drainage, the ophthalmologist may surgically removed the lesion, or may inject the lesion with corticosteroids.

UVEITIS
* Is the inflammation of uveal tract of the eye, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. Signs and symptoms:
* Characterized by irregular shaped pupil that does not react briskly * inflammation round the cornea
* pus in the anterior chamber
* Opaque deposits on the cornea
* Deep eye pain
* Lacrimation
* Ciliary flush(redness around limbus)
* Decreased visual acuity
* Conjuctival redness
Causes:
* Bacteria
* Viruses
* Fungi
* Parasites
* Infections
* Autoimmune-mediated disorder such as ankylosing spondylitis,...
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