Extraction of Jathropa curcas Seed Fats and Oil and Identification and Characterization of Unknown Oil
Jose G. Intano, Jr. and Niescee Eiscene Talaman
University of the Philippines Visayas
The experiment had the objectives of extracting fats and oil from plant sample using 3:2 hexane-isopropanol solvent through Soxhlet method and of identifying and characterizing unknown oil sample using different chemical analyses. It was divided into two major parts: (1) Extraction of Jathropa curcas seed fats and oil, and (2) Identification and characterization of unknown oil. After the fats and oil was extracted from seeds of Jathropa curcas, the percent yield was reported as 40-41%. The specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, and the saponification value of the unknown oil sample were determined. The computed values were 1.05, 1.5765 ± 5.7735 x 10-5, 0.328 ± 2.31 x 10-3 mg acid / g oil, 10. g I2 / 100 g oil, 22 ± 2 ml / g oil, and 208 ± 8.49 mg KOH / g oil, respectively. Comparing the experimental results with the theoretical values, the unknown oil sample was identified as Cinnamon oil. 1. Introduction
Oils have been extracted throughout the ages and were regularly used in practical things like wines, creams and perfumes. When the distillation process was developed, more concentrated essences can now be made and various kinds of individual oils have been created and are now available. With better distilling technology available today, complex chemical compounds can now be separated and it’s easier to manipulate the characteristics of oils. (Rangahau, 2001) The fats and oil, in the first part of the experiment, was extracted from Jathropa curcas seeds taken from the town of Guimbal. Jathropa curcas or Physic Nut (locally known as Tuba-tuba or Kasla) is processed for the high-quality biodiesel production. Its seeds are also a source of the highly poisonous Toxalbumin curcin. After the seeds were dried for about two days, the outer covering was peeled off, cut and shredded into smaller pieces, which were then weighed in preparation for the extraction. The process of extraction and solvent used in the experiment was Sohxlet extraction and the solvent used was 3:2 hexane-isopropanol. After the oils were extracted, the excess solvent was evaporated using the rotary evaporator apparatus, the remaining extractions were left to further evaporate in the fume hood and later placed in a dessicator. The percentage of fats and oil extracted was then determined. The second part of the experiment includes the characterization of the unknown oil sample using the following tests: Determination of Specific Gravity, Determination of Refractive Index, Determination of Acid Value, Determination of Iodine Value, Determination of Peroxide Value, and Determination of Saponification Value. These reported values were used to identify the unknown oil sample.
Aromatic plants possess odorous volatile substances which occur as essential oil, gum exudate, balsam and oleoresin in one or more parts, namely, root, wood, bark, stem, foliage, flower and fruit. The characteristic aroma is due to a variety of complex chemical compounds. If plant contains oil, it also contains fat that is also essential. Fats are consisting of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. It is mainly triesters of glycerol and fatty acids. Unlike any other oils, Jathropa curcas seed oil has no pleasing smell and less medical uses due to the fact that the plant contains hydrogen cyanide, a poisonous compound. Research has shown the seeds contain around 20% saturated fatty acids and 80% unsaturated fatty acids, and yield 25%–40% oil by weight. In addition, the seeds contain other chemical compounds, such as saccharose, raffinose, stachyose, glucose,fructose, galactose, and protein. The oil...
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