LO1: Plan care to prevent common problems associated with impaired mobility
There are many and diverse hazards of impaired mobility:
-poor circulation that may predispose to DVT;
-poor respiratory function that may predispose to chest infections; -development of pressure ulcers;
-loss of bone density (osteoporosis);
-potential loss of mental well-being, e.g. depression, boredom, isolation, impaired social interaction; -loss of independence that may affect all the activities of living (Brooker& Waugh, 2007)
It is very important for nurses to recognise the potential problems that patients with limited mobility or who are immobile may face in order to minimize their occurrence (Brooker& Waugh, 2007).
When not used, the joints stiffen and the skeletal muscles waste. It is therefore important to maintain the range of movements available at joints and the condition of skeletal muscles when mobilization is not possible. Active and passive exercises can be carried out in bed in these situations. Active exercises are those initiated by people themselves without aid. Passive exercises are those initiated by carers who move a person’s joints through the normal range of movements (Brooker& Waugh, 2007).
Early mobilisation may prevent complications such as pressure damage and deep vein thrombosis. Early mobilisation in combination with pre- and postoperative physiotherapy may be of value in reducing pulmonary complications (NHS QIS, 2009).
Constipation can be prevented by anticipating the dietary and fluid needs of immobile patients and providing an appropriate intake. The following options should be considered in constipated patients: -increase mobility
-increase fluid intake
-increase fibre in diet
-laxatives (as recommended in the British National Formulary for drug-induced constipation) (NHS...