Line is in many ways the simplest element of form: the connection between two points. It is also one of the most powerful elements of art, because it readily suggests movement and also, as a contour, can suggest solid form or mass. Lines often function as the abstract underpinnings of compositions, both in pictures and in sculptures. Line is one dimensional, and is therefore a very versatile tool in the creation of art. There are a number of different ways to use line. Drawing the outlines of an object is called contour drawing. Line that shows emotion, movement or direction is called expressive line, and line that is simple, ordered and symmetrical is called classical line. Implied line shows the edges of things without actually outlining them, and is used to draw the viewer's eye into the plane of a picture. Line can be used to shade or add texture to a picture using cross-hatching, which is composed of parallel crossed lines. Shape
Shape becomes visible when a line or lines enclose an area, or when an apparent change in value [lightness or darkness] or texture sets an area apart from its surroundings. Shapes are two-dimensional graphic elements like lines, but they can also suggest masses or solid objects in flattened profile. If the end of a line connects with its own beginning, it forms a shape, and the character of a shape is really determined by the kind of line that forms its outer border. There are broad categories of shape: curvilinear, angular, geometric, biomorphic and irregular. These types of shape have abstract associations that can be connected to real world objects they resemble. Color is another factor that affects the expressive impact of a shape.
Mass is the term we use to describe solid form in art. Mass is a principle characteristic of most "things" in the real world: mountains, stones, apples and the human figure. Carved and modeled sculpture works with mass, as its primary component, often connected with linear...
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