Explaining Basic Accounting Concepts and Business Structures I will explain the basic accounting concepts and business structures from the following topics: GAAP sources and hierarchy; Good accounting information using the qualities of accounting principles; Difference between Accrual based accounting and cash basis of accounting; Types of business structures and the features of each structure.
1. GAAP sources and hierarchy
Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) is the set of accounting principles, standards and procedures that companies use to prepare their financial statements. GAAP principles are the bases of financial reports and the guidelines of United States accounting practices. There are four categories of sources of GAAP hierarchy as follows:
Category (A): FASB Standards, Interpretations, and Staff Positions; APB Opinions; AICPA Accounting Research Bulletins. Category (B): FASB Technical Bulletins (no longer issued), AICPA Industry Audit and Accounting Guides, AICPA Statements of Position. Category (C): FASB Emerging Issues Task Force, AICPA AcSEC Practice Bulletins. Category (D): AICPA Accounting Interpretations, FASB Implementation Guides (Q and A), widely recognized and prevalent industry practices. The category (a) of the GAAP hierarchy has a higher authority than a FASB Technical Bulletin, which is in category (b).The hierarchy is important because it gives the out layer for companies to search for the specific accounting transactions. For example, if a specific transaction can not be covered in category (a), then companies will turn to categories (b) for selecting and applying appropriate accounting principles, then (c) and (d). 2. Good accounting information using the qualities of accounting principles Good accounting information should be understandable. If no one can not understand the accounting information presented, it becomes useless to lose all of the other qualities. The good accounting information should be Reliable...
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