Explain the Sequence and Rate of Each Aspect of Development from Birth – 19 Years.

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Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years. The areas of a childs development can be categorized into four seperate groups. Namely - physical development, social and emotional development, intellectual development and language development. It is important to be able to identify these developmental mile stones in order to asses a childs rate of development and make observations as to whether or not a child is developing at a rate that you would expect. Therefore I have listed below each developmental group and mile stones that are expected at certain age groups within those areas. Physical development - movement and motor skills including hand eye co-ordination. By 6 months a child should be able to smile at familiar voices and faces as well as turn their head towards sound and movement. They will be able to focus on an adlut's face whilst feeding, hold and shacke a rattle or other similar object and put all sorts of items in their mouth. It is also expected that they will reach out for objects including their own toes whilst lead on their backs. Bewteen 6 months and year they will have moved on to patting and poking objects whilst playing, passing objects from one hand to another and look for things that have been hidden or droppped. They should react to their own name and raise their arms to be lifted aswell as reach for food. A move towards sitting on their own and even rolling over and crawling would be expected with that even progressing to using the help of adults or furniture to stand. From one to two years this would naturally move to the child beginning to walk and sit alone, crawling upstairs and feeding themselves. Whilst playing it would not be unusual to see them banging objects together using their thumb and first two fingers to grip, as well as loosely holding crayons and building with bricks. They may also begin to show a preference for either being left or right handed. Shacking their head for 'no' and waving goodbye would not be a problem. Pushing toys whilst walking and enjoying picture books would also be a steady sign of development as well as stooping to pick up objects and pointing towards objects that interested them or that they wanted. Between two and three play would become more complex, involving such activities as throwing and kicking balls, using pencils to make marks as well as circular scribbles, pouring liquids and building larger towers with bricks or blocks. Kneeling to play in a certain area or with a certain object would also be a sign of physical development. From three it would be expected to see them walking up and down stairs as well as walking on their tip toes and jumping with two feet together. More complex skills such as catching a gently thrown ball or climbing on equipment would become easier and likewise so would gaining control of eating tools. Also motor skills such as threading beads and painting. At four these skills progress into throwing a ball with aim and pedaling a bike possibly with stabelisers. Holding a pencil in order to draw easy shapes such as houses and people would become more natural as well as holidng scissors. Again at five a child would move forward to holding and controlling a pencil whilst copying shapes and some letters. They may take up a hobby such as sewing or stitching, or if they are more sporty they might become better at catching balls and kicking balls with good aim. A six to seven year old would be much more confident at climbing and jumping from heights, possibly riding a bike without their stabellisers and even skipping. Tying buttons and shoe laces, threading needles and writing are skills mastered at this age. Between the ages of seven and twelve most physical develpment has already taken place but all the skills already learnt are improved upon as a child starts to enjoy taking part in team games that involve running, jumping and hitting/kicking balls. more individual pass times such as drawing or...
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