Explain the Sequence and Rate of Each Aspect of Development from Birth - 19 Years

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There are 4 different areas of development these are the physical development, the social and emotional development, the intellectual development and the language development. Each area of development is as important as the other and all influence the other. We use milestones to mark a child's achievement and to determine the end of one developmental stage to the other. The milestones develop in the age ranges of 0-3 years, 3-7 years, 7-12 years and 12-19 years.

Every child and young person develops at a different rate and therefore this is only a guide to the development in children and young people.

The physical development involves the gross and fine motor skills of the child and young person. From birth to 19 years the development progresses from head to toe, from inner to outer.

Infants can move their head and limbs, will reach up to hold their feet when lying on their backs and will put everything in their mouths. By 6 months they will move from sitting with support to sitting alone, raises the arms to be lifted and pass objects from hand to hand..

During the age of 1 to 2 years they begin to crawl or shuffle around or walk, reach for objects or toys, begin to show preference for one hand and hold a crayon in the palm to make marks on paper. By the age of 18months a child will be able to push or pull toys whilst walking, bangs object together and crawl upstairs.

Between 2 and three years a child will kneel to play, throw and kick balls and use a pencil to make marks and circular scribbles on paper. At the age of three the child will have greatly improved their gross and fine motor skills. Toddlers are capable off feeding themselves with a spoon or build a large brick tower.

The physical development ages 3-7 years may include the jumping with two feet together at 3 years, pedalling a tricycle with 4 years, hopping with 5 years and skipping with 6-7 years. Other milestones are catchting a gently thrown ball with 3 years, throwing with aim with 4 years, kicking with aim with 5 years and riding a bicycle with 6 – 7 years.

By the ages 7-12 years the childs or young persons physical development will have improved to running, jumping, climbing. The child or young person will enjoy team games but might misjudge their ability before the age of 9. During the ages 12-19 years the young person will see many physical changes in their appearance. But everyone's rate of groth is different, some girls might have already reached full physical maturity by the age of 14 whilst others might begin at that age. Boys usually reach later adolescence however at the end of this growth period will usually be bigger then girls. During the adolescence their strength will have increased with their balance and coordination. By the age of 19 or 20 the adolescent has full adult motor capacities.

The social and emotional development includes forming relationships, learning social skills and making decisions. It generally progresses from general to specific.

A Newborn will respond to an adults face (especially their mothers) and voice, smiles and is very dependent on adults.

By 6 to 9 months a child will show affection to it's known carer but will be shy with strangers. By the time a child is 9 month old it will be able to recognise familiar and unfamiliar faces.

A child will like to please adults and perform for an audience between 1 and 2 years of age. It may want to use a comfort object when anxious or distressed.

Between 2 and 3 years a child will become more demanding of the adults attention, will be reluctant to share toys or objects and is prone to bursts of emotion tantrums.

At the age of 3-4 years a child will learn to be separated from a parent or carer for short periods of time i.e. nursery or playgroup. It will become more independent, self motivated, sociable and friendly with others and will be more able to share. By 4-7 years the child will make friends, enjoy helping others and take...
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