A civilization is the starting point of a society. Civilizations have existed for millions of years and are the basic unit of structure for a society. Civilizations were the base of great societies such as Egypt and Rome. If not for civilizations these societies would not have flourished or even existed.
A civilization is compiled of eight features.
2. Well-Organized Central Government
3. Complex Religions
4. Job Specialization
5. Social Classes
6. Arts and Architecture
7. Public Works
Cities are the central feature of a civilization. The first cities emerged shortly after farmers began cultivating fertile lands along river valleys and producing surplus foods. These surpluses allowed the population to expand. As population grew, some villages expanded into cities. These cities rose independently in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
The conditions of river valleys favored farming in these and other such river valleys. Floodwater spread silt across the valley renewing the soil and keeping it fertile. Animals that drank from the river were also a source of food. The river also supplied the people with a regular source of drinking water and the means of transportation. However rivers also posed challenges. Farmers had to control flooding and channel waters to the fields. Early farmers built dikes, dug canals and also made irrigation ditches. Such projects required leadership and a well-organized government.
A government was required to lead the people and aid in organizing a city. City governments were far more powerful than the council of elders and local chiefs of farming villages. At first, Priest probably had the greatest. In time, warrior kings came to power as chief political leaders. They soon set themselves up as the chief hereditary ruler...