Explain how managers can use motivation theories to influence the behaviour of people in organizations.
TABLE OF CONTENT
The meaning of motivation 6
Theories of motivation
THE NEED OR CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Abraham Harold Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 8
Douglas Mc Gregor's Theory X and Theory Y 12
Frederick Herzberg's Motivator Hygiene Theory 15
David McClelland's Acquired-Needs Theory 17
THE PROCESS OR COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Victor H. Vroom's Expectancy Theory (The VIE Theory) 20
THE REINFORCEMENT THEORY 23
Understanding people's perceptions, attitudes, motivations and behaviours is extremely important for achieving both managerial and organisational effectiveness. To get the very best out of people in work settings, managers constantly need knowledge about the behaviour of individuals and groups in organisations; they also need to be aware of the organisational and environmental variables that can potentially affect human behaviour. They need to understand, anticipate, modify and improve behaviours that are organizationally meaningful and relevant.
The contribution of people, through their motivation and commitment, and dedicated behaviour towards the goals and objectives of the organisation, remain the single most important factor in making organisations better and more effective.
Some people like their jobs and work harder as well as smarter. They are also very proud of the organizations for which they work. Other people simply dislike their jobs and would do anything just to avoid working. They would also prefer, if given the choice, to leave the organizations where they are working. Such attitudes and behaviours are not uncommon. They have a direct link with the issue of _MOTIVATION_ at work.
Managers must use sophisticated knowledge of people's motivation to influence human behaviour in the right direction. Managers are always expected to obtain higher levels of performance and productivity from the employees. They are expected to ensure that employees are committed and dedicated to their work. Motivating employees is, therefore, an important responsibility for managers and their effectiveness is closely connected with the issue of motivation.
Therefore, understanding and managing motivation is of interest to managers as well as to anybody entrusted with the task of working with and through people to achieve certain goals and objectives. Leading involves influencing others' work behaviour toward achieving organisational goals. The energy of an organisation comes from its workers' motivation. Consequently, managers must use several motivational approaches focusing on individual needs, the thought processes involved in deciding whether or not to expend effort, and available reinforcements and rewards.
Motivation is not behaviour itself. We can infer the presence or absence of motivation by examining the behaviours of people in a given context. Some behaviours are desirable and encouraged. Other types of behaviours are undesirable and will not be encouraged. Some of the factors that explain the presence of undesirable behaviours are due to a lack of motivation. The responsibility of those who are managing the motivational issue is to trigger the motivational process within individuals.
The concept of motivation can be viewed from two perspectives:
From the point of view of human behaviour (i.e. what makes a person invest a given amount of effort and enthusiasm while doing a piece of work).
From the point of view of _managing_ human behaviour (i.e. as a management concept to be understood and applied by managers to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in working with employees).
Put in a simple and straightforward way, motivation is...