Explain how Industrialization led to Social Change in the 19th Century.

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From the onset of the nineteenth century, paramount strides were made in technological advancement, particularly throughout Europe. Human and animal labour came to be substituted by mineral power, such as coal; water and steam; and hand tools were replaced by the machine. This Industrial Revolution was pioneered by Great Britain, and occurred much later in France, Germany, and Central Europe. The mechanization of production was paralleled by distinguished social changes, and everywhere, the new 'bourgeoisie' class of businessmen was gaining economic strength and demanding its share of political power.

The impacts of Industrialization were varied: It had similar repercussions everywhere on marriage and family life; it gave birth to new social classes; and it shed light on new ideologies, particularly social Darwinism, the theories of natural selection and survival of the fittest, and forces aimed at toppling capitalism. It promoted migration from the farms in the countryside, to the city, and between towns, as well as to other countries, particularly across the Atlantic. Industrialization also led to Standardization and Urbanization of society.

As industry mushroomed, larger amounts of capital were needed. Combinations of capitalists were required to provide the necessary funding. By the latter part of the nineteenth century, corporations became the dominant form of business enterprise, providing larger sums of money than individual businessmen could hope to accumulate. This provided more purchasing power in the developing countries.

It was the Industrial Revolution, along with an unprecedented rise in population, that brought about the real expansion of European cities'. (A brief history of Western Man, pg 458). Although the drift from farm to city had existed long before the Industrial Revolution, Industrialization served to precipitate this sort of migration. Hence the trend of man, to travel from nature dominated-surroundings, to a mad-made environment, which had persisted over centuries, was brought closer to an end. At the start of outset of industrialization, only four cities existed in Great Britain, with approximately 50, 000 people. Only about fifty years later, half the population of Britain resided in the kingdom's thirty-one cities. The death rates had decreased due to control of epidemics and advances in sanitation. This rapid increase in population density overwhelmed the cities in the early phases of industrialization, and the result was a sometimes repulsive environment, of cramped soot-blackened housing, with few sewers and poor infrastructure. The poor people who flocked from rural poverty were like refugees, and they soon became plagued by 'the chronic urban maladies of alienation, disease and crime'. (A brief history of Western Man, pg 459). Family life suffered in these deplorable environment that many families were housed. Often, these were due to the economic limitations that lower class families faced. Crowded, small dwellings seemed a preferable alternative to high rent. However, the situation was more problematic in some regions, than other. Many families had to be modified to cushion and resist the impacts of Industrialization. Marriage patterns were also affected by migration during the 1800's. Young persons uncommonly migrated alone. For those who did, it was part of a quest to be re-united with relatives and neighbours.

In pre-industrial Metropolitan high society, marriages involved mainly familial and economic considerations. Financial standing weighed more than romantic love in marriages. 'Romantic love may have affected choice of a partner, but parents and other kin actually feared its subversive influence on the broader economic community'. Upper class marriages necessitated coadunation of land, property, and political power. They were more social alliances of convenience, rather than affection; they involved dowries and patrimony.

Prospective husbands among members of the...
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