The diameter and mass of a steel ball was measured and recorded by the class. These measurements were to determine error in measurements and the derived quantities, volume and density. The diameter was determined using a dial caliper and the mass, a triple beam balance. The results of the error for diameter were not as expected while the results of the volume and density were deviated greatly from expectations; only the weight had a small error.

Procedure:
1.The steel ball was measured for its diameter using the caliper using gloves to not add hand oil to the ball. 2.The ball was placed on the balance with pan to measure mass. 3.The volume was calculated using (4/3)pi(r^3)

4.The density was calculated using mass/density
5.The results were aggregated with the class's.
6.The mean and standard deviation was determined for the four values. 7.A frequency histogram was made for the diameter and mass.

Results and Discussion

The results of the analysis are attached on next page. The relative error of the diameter was 27% while the relative error for mass was .8%. The relative error for volume and density were 54% and 297% respectively. The error for the diameter was quite large and this was due in part by #11 measurement of 0.53. The histogram shows that nearly all of the values lie within one standard deviation of the mean. The mass had a low error but had two competing values in the frequency histogram; the two greatest values had a runner up in between them. This may show that the ball was in fact not completely spherical. The huge variance in the volume and density was probably due to non-uniform calculations done by the students.

Conclusion

The mass was measured with a good degree of error, however the diameter had some major deviation. The volume and density was off terribly; perhaps due to...

...
Experiment 4: ExperimentalErrors and Uncertainty
Brett R. Spencer
Date Performed: June 10th, 2015: 3:10 p.m.
PHY 111C02
Section 1: Experiment and Observation
Time, t (s)
Dist. Y1 (m)
Dist. Y2 (m)
Dist. Y3 (m)
Dist. Y4 (m)
Dist. Y5 (m)
Mean of Y
Standard Dev.
t^2
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.40
1.10
1.40
1.50
1.28
0.22
0.25
0.75
2.60
3.20
2.80
2.50
3.10
2.84
0.30
0.56
1.00
4.80
4.40
5.10
4.70
4.80
4.76
0.16
1.00
1.25
8.20
7.90
7.50
8.10
7.40
7.82
0.36
1.56
A. Objective
The objective of this lab consists of gaining perspective and understanding of experimentalerrors and uncertainty in the parameters of physical measurements.
B. Equipment Used
ExperimentalErrors and Uncertainty Experiment Manual
Computer with Excel 2010
Pens/Pencils
Paper (plain and graph)
C. Data
Data Table 1 shows 5 different variable data sets along with a constant set speed in order to test the variables. Measurements were taken during a free-fall experiment, where the distance travel (y) was recorded at each 4 depicted times (x). The calculations for the average speed for each team slot, along with its standard deviation were manually calculated to three significant figures. The results related to distance, however, were not rounded in any format.
Section 2: Analysis
A....

...
ExperimentalErrors and Uncertainty
Data:
The data table that follows shows data taken in a free-fall experiment.
Measurements were made of the distance of fall (Y) at each of the four precisely measured times.
Time, t (s)
Dist, y1 (m)
Dist, y2 (m)
Dist, y3 (m)
Dist, y4 (m)
Dist, y5 (m)
<y>
σ
t2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.5
1.0
1.4
1.1
1.4
1.5
0.75
2.6
3.2
2.8
2.5
3.1
1.0
4.8
4.4
5.1
4.7
4.8
1.25
8.2
7.9
7.5
8.1
7.4
Procedures
From the above data perform the following Tasks.
Task 1. Complete the table.
Results 1:
Task 2. Plot a graph <y> versus t (plot t on the abscissa, i.e., x-axis).
Results 2:
Task 3. Plot a graph <y> versus t2 (plot t2 on the abscissa, i.e., x-axis). The equation of motion for an object in free fall starting from rest is y = ½ gt2, where g is the acceleration due to gravity. This is the equation of a parabola, which has the general form y = ax2.
Results 3:
Task 4. Determine the slope of the line and compute an experimental value of g from the slope value. Remember, the slope of this graph represents ½ g.
Results 4:
Task 5. Compute the percent error of the experimental value of g determined from the graph in part d. (Accepted value of g = 9.8 m/s2)
Results 5:
Task 6. Use a spreadsheet to perform the calculations and plot the graphs indicated.
Results 6: The spreadsheet with calculations graphs is attached as a separate attachment.
...

...
ExperimentalErrors and Uncertainty
Data:
The data table that follows shows data taken in a free-fall experiment.
Measurements were made of the distance of fall (Y) at each of the four precisely measured times.
Time, t (s)
Dist, y1 (m)
Dist, y2 (m)
Dist, y3 (m)
Dist, y4 (m)
Dist, y5 (m)
<y>
σ
t2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.5
1.0
1.4
1.1
1.4
1.5
0.75
2.6
3.2
2.8
2.5
3.1
1.0
4.8
4.4
5.1
4.7
4.8
1.25
8.2
7.9
7.5
8.1
7.4
Procedures
From the above data perform the following Tasks.
Task 1. Complete the table.
Results 1:
Task 2. Plot a graph <y> versus t (plot t on the abscissa, i.e., x-axis).
Results 2:
Task 3. Plot a graph <y> versus t2 (plot t2 on the abscissa, i.e., x-axis). The equation of motion for an object in free fall starting from rest is y = ½ gt2, where g is the acceleration due to gravity. This is the equation of a parabola, which has the general form y = ax2.
Results 3:
Task 4. Determine the slope of the line and compute an experimental value of g from the slope value. Remember, the slope of this graph represents ½ g.
Results 4:
Task 5. Compute the percent error of the experimental value of g determined from the graph in part d. (Accepted value of g = 9.8 m/s2)
Results 5:
Task 6. Use a spreadsheet to perform the calculations and plot the graphs indicated.
Results 6: The spreadsheet with calculations graphs is attached as a separate attachment.
...

...5.3. Data Analysis
The errors committed by both groups of participants are classified in this study as follows:
1. Categories:
a. Omission errors, which is omitting some required elements.
b. Addition errors, which is adding unnecessary elements.
c. Selection errors, which is selecting incorrect elements.
2. Subcategories:
a. Morphological errors.
b. Syntacticalerrors.
The total number of errors, found in the writings of both groups L2 and L5, in all categories was: 74 errors. The classification of those errors was according to their categories and subcategories.
Regarding omission errors, there were 33 errors in both morphological and syntactical omissions. As for morphological omission errors, there were 14 errors. Syntactical omission errors, on the other hand, were about 19 errors.
With respect to addition errors, 19 errors were committed by the participants in this category, 7 of them were morphological and 12 were syntactical.
Concerning the third category which is selection errors, there were 24 errors. 6 errors were morphological and the other 18 were syntactical. Figure 1 shows the number of...

...PK – Lab Report Name: ____________________
Section: ___________________
ExperimentalErrors and Uncertainty
Data:
The data table that follows shows data taken in a free-fall experiment.
Measurements were made of the distance of fall (Y) at each of the four precisely measured times.
Time, t (s)|Dist, y1 (m)|Dist, y2 (m)|Dist, y3 (m)|Dist, y4 (m)|Dist, y5 (m)||σ|t2|
0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|
0.5|1.0|1.4|1.1|1.4|1.5|1.3|.2|.25|
0.75|2.6|3.2|2.8|2.5|3.1|2.8|.3|.56|
1.0|4.8|4.4|5.1|4.7|4.8|4.8|.3|1|
1.25|8.2|7.9|7.5|8.1|7.4|7.8|.4|1.56|
Procedures:
From the above data perform the following Tasks.
Task 1. Complete the table.
Results 1:
Task 2. Plot a graph versus t (plot t on the abscissa, i.e., x-axis).
Results 1:
Task 3. Plot a graph versus t2 (plot t2 on the abscissa, i.e., x-axis). The equation of motion for an object in free fall starting from rest is y = ½ gt2, where g is the acceleration due to gravity. This is the equation of a parabola, which has the general form y = ax2.
Results 1:
Task 4. Determine the slope of the line and compute an experimental value of g from the slope value. Remember, the slope of this graph represents ½ g.
Results :
Task 5. Compute the percent error of the experimental value of g determined from the graph in part d. (Accepted value of g = 9.8 m/s2)
Results 5:
Task 6. Use a spreadsheet to perform...

...Experiment 1: Errors, Uncertainties and Measurements
Laboratory Report
Kendrick Don Reyes, Myrr Kea Rostrata, Josemarie Emmanuel Roxas, Lindley Susi, Jessica Tabuzo
Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
España, Manila Philipines
Abstract
In this experiment, different measuring devices were used, namely the vernier calliper, micrometer calliper, foot rule, and the electronic gram balance. These devices were used to obtain the mean diameter, volume, mass, and the experimental value of density of the sphere of known composition.
1. Introduction
Measurement is the process or act of determining the size, length, quantity, etc. of something being observed or measured. The units of measurement evolved and changed greatly since the day it was made by humans. In different places, these measurements can vary and could well be different from each other. Thus, standards are used nowadays so that we can have a concrete basis and this also prevents fraud or the cheating of somebody especially in business matters.
There are different systems of measurement used. We have this CGS system or known as centimeter-gram-second system which is a metric system derived from the meter-kilogram-second system or mks system. It uses centimeter (c) for
length, gram (g), second (s) for time, dyne for force, and erg for energy. The metric system has become a common system for weights...

...ErrorAnalysis Lab
By: Lab Team 5
Introduction and Background: In the process of learning about the importance of measurement and data processing, lab teams were given prompts to design experiments as well as address the precision, accuracy, and erroranalysis within the experiment. Lab teams collaborated their data to find similarities and differences within their measurements. Through this process, students learned the importance of the amount of uncertainty as well as the different types of experimentalerrors that might have caused a margin of difference within the lab teams results.
Measurement and data processing is a topic discussed in IB Chemistry SL; it is important within the scientific community as it discusses the reliability of the data presented. Uncertainty is used to determine a range of a value in a measurement or instrument. Uncertainty of an analogue instrument is plus or minus half of the smallest division present; while uncertainty of a digital scale is plus or minus the smallest division present. To identify the amount of uncertainty, significant figures (the digits in measurement up to and including the first uncertain digit) are used. Certain rules are used to discover the number of significant figures in a value:
* 1-9 are always significant
* included zeroes (1009= 4...

...to the data of the first bead set to look for any systematic errors that may have occurred. During the experiment, the data was used to see whether the diameter, mass, and density were constant between the individual beads. However, the main goal of the experiment was to answer the question of whether or not individual density average agreed with the bulk density.
Analysis
Through erroranalysis, the data found was used to determine if the calculated densities were the same when comparing twenty individual beads versus the entire set of twenty beads treated as one unit. For the first data set, the average diameter is 1.42 cm. The average mass is 3.90 g. The average density is 2.62 g/cm3. The average variation of the diameter is 0.04 cm. This amount shows how much the beads varied in diameter. The average variation of the mass is 0.28 g, which shows how much the mass of the beads varied from one another. The average variation between the densities of the individual beads is 0.06 g/cm3. The average percent variation of the diameter is 2.8%. The average percent variation of the mass is 7.2%. The average percent variation of the density is 2.4%. The uncertainty for the diameter in the first data set is 0.005cm and the percent uncertainty is 0.37%. The uncertainty of the mass is 0.005g and the percent uncertainty is 0.15%. Since the percent of variation of...

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