Eric Wu117
Experiment 1.6: Determination of Density
Abstract:
The purpose of the experiment was to determine if density is an intensive or extensive property of matter. The experiment proves that density is an intensive property. The density of an object remains the same no matter how much of it is present. The density is an intensive property because mass and volume changes at the same rate. Introduction:

This experiment was designed to determine if density is an intensive or extensive property. The density of an object is found by dividing its mass by its volume. The volume of a regular shaped object can be measured with a ruler. The volume of an irregular shaped object can be measured by putting it in water and figuring out the displacement the object creates. An intensive property is a property that remains the same when the size of the sample is changed. An extensive property is a property that changes when the size changes. Hypothesis:

If the volume of a sample objects changes, then the density will stay the same because density is an intensive property. Materials and Methods:
The materials used in this experiment are an electronic balance, graduated cylinder, and paper clips. The electronic balance was compact scale that measured the mass in grams. The graduated cylinder was filled with water. The paper clips were an irregular shaped object. The mass of the paper clips was found using the electronic balance. The volume was found by measuring the displacement that was created by the paper clips.

Results:
The mass of 5 paper clips is 5.0 grams. Its volume is 1.0 milliliters. Its volume is 5g/mL. Although when more paper clips were added to the graduated cylinder, the density remained the same. This is because the mass also increased at the same ratio as the volume. Because of this the density of 9 and 13 paper clips is also 5g/mL. Number of Paper Clips| Mass(g)| Starting water volume (mL)| Ending Water Volume (mL)| Volume of Paper...

...Title of the Experiment: determination of densities
Introduction
The density of a sample of matter represents the mass contained within a unit volume of space in the sample. For most samples, a unit volume means 1.0 ml. The units of density, therefore, are quoted in terms of grams per milliliter (g/ml) or grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) for most solid and liquid samples of matter.
Density is often used as a point of identification in the determination of an unknown substance. The density of the unknown might be used to distinguish the unknown from a list of known substances. It is very unlikely for two substances to have the same density, and when coupled with boiling point and melting point it adds even more validity to the identity of the substance.
Density can also be used to determine the concentration of solutions in certain instances. When a substance is dissolved in water, the density of the solution will be different from that of the pure water itself. Handbooks list detailed information about the densities of solutions as a function of their composition (typically, in terms of percent substance in the solution). If a sample is known to contain only a single substance, the density of the solution can be measured experimentally, and then the handbook can be consulted to...

... Unknown Code: K
General Chemistry Laboratory
September 13, 2013
Experiment 1: Determination of Density
Introduction
The purpose of this experiment was to be able to measure the density of water and an unknown substance with a buret and an analytical balance. The density can be calculated by dividing the mass per volume. It was expressed in grams per cubic centimeters, or in this case, grams per milliliters.
Density is a very important property that identifies the pure substance being measured without knowing what it is at a given temperature. The temperature is extremely important since it determines the state of the substance being used. Normally, substances expand as the temperature increases making them less dense. So, gases are less dense than liquids and liquids are less dense than solids. But in water, which is measured in this experiment, the solid state is less dense than the liquid state. This is because of the ice crystal structure the molecules form making them occupy more space than the molecules in liquid water. The substance with less density is always on top of the substance with more density.
In addition to measuring the density of water and an unknown substance with a buret and an analytical balance, accuracy and precision will be introduced which is determined by all the data...

...Cassidy Bennett
DensityDetermination
Objective: To find the density of materials using two methods to calculate volume, and calculate percent error of the results.
Materials:
-Graduated cylinder-Vernier Caliper-Cube
-Balance-Water-Beaker
-Cylinder-Unknown Liquid
Procedure:
A. Density of liquids
Measure the mass of a graduated cylinder to the nearest 0.01g.
Add water to the cylinder, calculate the new mass of the cylinder and water. Record the volume of water to the nearest 0.1 mL.
Repeat steps 1-2 for additional liquids.
B. Density of solids using water displacement
1. Obtain a solid object and measure its mass to the nearest 0.01 g.
2. Fill a graduated cylinder about half full and read the volume to the nearest 0.1 mL.
3. Carefully place the solid in the water and record the new volume of water to the nearest 0.1 mL.
4. Repeat steps 1-3 for additional solids.
C. Density of solids using calipers
1. Obtain a solid object and measure its mass to the nearest .01 g.
2. Use calipers to measure the necessary dimensions to calculate volume. Record the measurements to the nearest 0.01 cm.
3. Repeat steps 1-2 for additional solids.
Calculations:
1. Volume of a solid using water displacement
Final volume of water - Initial volume of water = Volume of a solid
a. Cube- 59mL – 40mL = 18mL
b. Cylinder- 14.5mL – 10mL = 4.5mL
c. Sphere-...

...Table 1: Density based on dimensional analysis
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Units
Mass of sample 70.5466 70.5467 70.5465 g
Dimensions of sample Length 4.98 4.98 4.99 cm
Width 1.21 1.22 1.21 cm
Height 1.21 1.22 1.22 cm
Volum of sample 7.29 7.41 7.37 cm^3
Density of sample (based on dimensional analysis) 9.68 9.52 9.57 g/cm^3
Table 2: Density based on the displacement of water
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Units
Mass of sample 70.5467 70.5465 70.5466 g
Final volume of the water in the buret (Vf) 29.83 13.11 25.51 ml
Initial volume of the water in the buret (Vo) 14.62 2.61 13.18 ml
Volume of the water dispensed from the buret (Vb=Vf-Vo) 15.21 10.50 12.33 ml
Volume of water level on graduated cylinder: Vgc 23.5 19.2 19.8 ml
Volume of sample 8.29 8.70 7.47 cm3
Density of sample 8.50 8.11 9.44 g/cm^3
2. CALCULATIONS
a. Relative Percent Error = IAbsolute ErrorI/True Value X 100%
IAbsolute ErrorI = ITrue Value - Measured ValueI
The Measured Value in my experiment based on table 2 is [(8.50+8.11+9.44)/3]= 8.68 g/cm^3
The True Value is 8.94 g/mL
Absolute Error = 8.94 - 8.68 = 0.26
Relative Percent Error = (0.26/8.94)x100=2.91 Using the correct number of significant figures,
gives us the answer: 3%
b. Density of metal bar using dimensional analysis
D = Mass/Volume (g/cm^3)
V = LxWxH =...

...Discussion and Conclusion
In this lab, a submarine Adventure: Density Saves The Day,; I had made many of the calculation for the best result of the lab.
My calculations section contains: the volume of the unknown metals, where I figure out the volume of each metal so that I will be able to determine its density in order to find its identity; the density of unknown metals, where I figure out the density of each metal so that I will be able to determine its identity; percent error between known and unknown metal densities, where I figure out my error on the calculation for finding the identity of the unknown metals; mass of water, where calculate to find out the mass of water by subtracting the mass of graduated cylinder with water by the mass of the graduated cylinder itself in order to find the density of ocean water; the density of ocean water; where I figure out the density of the ocean water by divided its mass by its volume, this will help me to find the density of the submarine as well since it’s equal to each other; volume of balloon needed to match salt water density, where I figure out the volume of the balloon by using the volume formula for the sphere shape which is representing the shape of the balloon; final volume of the submarine, where I divided its mass by its density to get its final volume so...

...Experiment #2 “DensityDeterminations” Report
The objective for experiment #2 was “to determine densities of objects/salt solutions with different concentrations of salt, to see how density changes as a function of concentration.” In experiment #2, part II, calculations of Density of NaCL solutions were made from 0%-25% NaCL concentration. My hypothesis was that as the % increased, so would the density, because adding weight would increase the density of each solution. The density calculations in part II, were precise and accurate within + 0.03 g/cm^3. The results for this experiment prove that as you increase % of NaCL, the density increases also because of the weight of NaCL is increased. Graph #1 shows that as the %NaCL increased so did the density, therefore proving the accuracy and precision of part II calculations. In part III, of the experiment, the density of regular shaped objects, were calculated based on volume measured method and water displacement method. My hypothesis for this part of the experiment was that volume measured method would be more accurate because water displacement method contains too many random errors. The density calculations of volume measured for part III were both more precise and more...

...Lab #2 Determination of Density
Britney Williams
Chemistry 121
Dr. Yu
1/29/13
Purpose: To determine the densities of aluminum and zinc cylinders
Density is the relationship between the mass of an object and its volume. Sometimes density can be easy to sense. If two objects have exactly the same shape and size, the denser one may feel heavier. If their densities are close together, it can be hard to tell the difference. It gets really tough if you are dealing with materials that have very different sizes or very different shapes. The only way to decide the density of an object is to measure its mass and its volume, then divide. Ex. Density= Mass/Volume
Procedure:
For Aluminum:
1. Weigh the aluminum cylinders individually on the analytical balance to the nearest 0.0001g and record the weights
2. With a vernier caliper, measure the diameter of each cylinder to the nearest 0.01cm and record
3. Again, using the vernier caliper, measure the length of each cylinder to the nearest 0.01cm and record
4. Compute the volume of each cylinder by using the formula V= (3.14d2h)/4
For Zinc:
1. Weigh the zinc cylinders individually on the top loading balance to the nearest 0.01g, and record the weights
2. Place enough water in a 100mL graduated cylinder to cover the object. Record the volume of water to the nearest 0.1mL by reading the bottom of the...

... Report of DensityDeterminationsDensity is defined as the mass of substance per unit volume. Both pure substances and solutions are applicable. Today we are going to determine the Density of rock chunks and NaCl solution. In this experiment, we will determine the mass and volume of each object and then we will calculate the ratio—the density.
In the first part of theexperiment, we should measure the density of some irregularly shaped chunks of rock. The Weight of rocks is 18.769g. To calculate the volume of rocks, We make use of Archimedes Principle: that is, an insoluble solid will DISPLACE a volume of water equal to its own volume. The volume before adding rocks and after adding rocks are 50 ml and 58 ml. Hence the volume of rocks is 58 cm3 minus 50 cm3 which is 8 cm3. The density is 18.769g divided by 8 cm3 which is 2.34g/ cm3. The chunks of rock should be returned to the waste beakers after use and we should not pour them into the sinks.
In the second part of the experiment, the chemical involved is sodium chloride which has no major health risks we should measure the density of the density of NaCl Solution. The concentration of NaCl which is assigned is 15%. We need 15g NaCl and 85 ml distilled water to make 15% NaCl solution. Firstly, we should make...