Experiment 3: Properties of Organic Compounds

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Jessica Robins

Lab 3: Properties of Organic Compounds

Introduction

Distillation is a physical process used to separate chemicals from a mixture by how easy they vaporize. The temperature rises unit it reaches the temperature of the lowest boiling substance in the mixture while the other contents of the mixture remain in their original phase (until the most volatile substance has all boiled off) as it’s heated. Hot vapor results and passes into a condenser and is then converted to a liquid that’s collected in a receiver flask. The temperature of the gas phase rises again until it reaches the boiling point of a second content in the mixture and so on. By simple microscale distillation, we purified an unknown organic compound and then identified the unknown organic compound by using the boiling point and density measurements.

Procedure/Results

5 mL of the unknown impure organic A was collected in an Erlenmeyer flask. A simple distillation apparatus was assembled and 3 mL of the unknown impure organic A was transferred into the distillation flask along with 3 boiling chips. A thermometer was then suspended down the middle of the condenser to record the distillation temperature. The mixture was heated gently and a pure solvent started to collect in the distillation flask. Two different fractions were collected. The first one was the forerun, which was collected before the temperature stabilized and the second one was when the temperature of the boiling compound began to stabilize. The unknown impure organic A was identified using density and boiling point measurements collected.

Another simple distillation apparatus was assembled to find the boiling point of the unknown impure organic A. 3 mL of the unknown impure organic A and 3 boiling chips were transferred into the distillation flask and heated gently until the substance started to boil.

The unknown impure organic A produced 0.3 mL with a boiling point of 55°C for fraction one,...
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