Expectancy Theory of Motivation
The three components and relationships in the Expectancy Theory of Motivation are the expectancy component which relates to the effort –performance relationship, the instrumentality theory component which relates to the performance-reward relationship, and the valence theory component which relates to the rewards-personal goals relationship. Effort – performance relationship is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance (Judge, 1998). This theory is based on the employee’s assumption that if they work hard and devote their best ability to their job that they will get a good performance appraisal. The Expectancy component describes individuals who thrive on controlling the outcome of their task or project. This individual will assess tasks given and most likely will not accept tasks that they feel are easily obtainable, but on the other hand they also will not accept a task that they perceive as too difficult. This individual likes a challenge but will only agree to the task if he/she believes that they are more than capable of completing the project and meeting the deadline. The situation will lead to a favorable outcome, then that favorable outcome becomes the employee’s motivation and gratification. Performance – reward relationship is the degree to which an individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome (Judge, 1998). This theory is based on the assumption that employees who get a good performance appraisal will be rewarded by the company in the form of a raise or bonus. The Instrumentality Theory is a component that focuses on individuals who feel they have something to gain if a task is completed successfully. These individuals are motivated by the possibility of public recognition, the expectation of a promotion, and monetary compensation. This individual will strive hard to be successful on a...
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