Expectancy Theory

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I.Motivation is defined as the force that:
A.Energies Behavior- What initiates a behavior, behavioral patterns, or changes in behavior? What determines the level of effort and how hard a person works? This aspect of motivation deals with the question of "What motivates people?" B.Directs Behavior- What determines which behaviors an individual chooses? This aspect of motivation deals with the question of choice and conflict among competing behavioral alternatives. C.Sustains Behavior- What determines and individuals level of persistence with respect to behavioral patterns? This aspect of motivation deals with how behavior is sustained and stopped. II.Motivation is behaviorally specific, that is, it is more appropriate to think in terms of an individual's motivation to excel in a particular job requirement or even to carry out a specific behavior than it is to think about an individual's overall motivation. While the Duracell battery people are amusing, we do not generally find people that are either always motivated in every situation or not motivated in any situation. While individual dispositional variables may affect an individual's motivation level at any particular time, motivation itself is not a dispositional variable. III.We use the Expectancy Theory of motivation to help us understand how individuals make decisions regarding various behavioral alternatives. This model deals with the direction aspect of motivation, that is, once behavior is energized, what behavioral alternatives are individuals likely to pursue. The following are propositions of Expectancy Theory: A.When deciding among behavioral options, individuals select the option with the greatest motivation forces (MF). MF= Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valance B.The motivational force for a behavior, action, or task is a function of three distinct perceptions which are: 1.Expectancy- Probability (EàP): The expectancy is the belief that one's effort (E)...
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