Expectancy theory, pg. 306.
Expectancy theory is based on the theory that the amount of effort that people expend depends on how much reward the expect to gain in return. It is a process theory because it tries to explain how motivation takes place for people. People will choose the assignment that has the biggest payoff and they think they are capable of handling. Expectancy theory has three basic components: valence, instrumentality and expectancy. Expectancy theory is comprehensive: first, it incorporates and integrates features of other motivation theories, including goal theory and behavior modification. And second, it offers the leader many guidelines for triggering and sustaining constructive effort from group members. Valence: the attractiveness of an outcome. All the valences must be positive in order for the person to work hard, ex: promotion. Instrumentality: relates to the outcome that people expect from performing in a certain way. People participate with the intention of achieving a desired outcome. Expectancy: “if I put in all this work, will I really get the job done properly?” Self-confident people have higher expectancy than less confident people and being well trained. Self-efficacy: the confidence in your ability to carry out a specific task. Leadership skills associated with expectancy theory:
1. Determine what levels of performance are needed to achieve organizational goals. 2. Make the performance level attainable
3. Train and encourage people
4. Make explicit the link between rewards and performance 5. Make sure rewards are big enough
6. Analyze what factors work in opposition to the effectiveness of the reward 7. Explain the meaning and implications of second level outcomes 8. Understand individual differences in valences.
9. Recognize when workers are in positive mood, high valences, instrumentalities and expectancies are more likely to lead to good performance. “The most commonly accepted theory...
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