The Role of Social Attitudes and Beliefs
Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van Doctor aan de Universiteit Leiden, op gezag van de Rector Magnificus prof. mr. P.F. van der Heijden volgens besluit van het College voor Promoties te verdedigen op dinsdag 13 April 2010 klokke 11.15 uur door Nailah Ayub geboren te Al-Khobar in 1976
NATIONAL DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT
Promotiecommissie: Promotor: Overige leden:
Prof. Dr. K. A. Jehn, University of Melbourne Prof. Dr. N. Ellemers, Universiteit Leiden Prof. Dr. H. Dekker, Universiteit Leiden Assoc Prof. Dr. M. Barreto, Lisbon University Instt.
This research was funded by study grant from the Higher Education Commission, Government of Pakistan. Research and travel grants were also provided by the Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Universiteit Leiden.
Print: Wöhrmann Print Service ISBN: 978-90-76269-81-8
Chapter 1 National Diversity and Conflict: An Introduction And Overview of the Present Dissertation National Diversity and Nationalism: A Theoretical Model Nationalism: Moderator of National Diversity to Conflict Relationship Method 54 Results 57 Discussion 60 Social Distance and National Stereotypes Method 81 Results 84 Discussion 95 Cultural Preference and Perceived Respect Method 116 Results 119 Discussion 126 General Discussion References Nederlandse Samenvatting Acknowledgements Curriculum Vitae KLI Dissertation Series 4
131 146 179 184 186 187
NATIONAL DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT
NATIONAL DIVERISTY AND CONFLICT: AN INTRODUCTION
Parts of this chapter are excerpts from Ayub & Jehn, 2010a
Diversity in workgroups is being promoted by laws and regulations, immigration and globalization, and at times by economic pressures. In essence of the definition of diversity, the workforce has always been diverse with reference to some characteristics when individuals with unique qualities and wisdom work towards a common task. The recent trends have brought women into formal professions, facilitated the disabled, and laws of equal opportunities have introduced a culturally diverse workforce. Diversity trainings and practices are being observed while norms and regulations are being reviewed and revised for improvements. The ambitious organizations have included diversity management to improve the organizational achievements and the well being of their workers. As diversity increases in the workforce, organizations strive to search for means and possibilities to capitalize on this diversity. It has become important to understand how diversity affects group and organizational outcomes since organizations are increasingly operating in multinational contexts (Milliken & Martins, 1996). Diversity, generally defined as perceived differences, has been advocated by many diversity researchers for effective and productive workgroups and organizations (e.g., Jehn, Northcraft, & Neale, 1999; McLeoad, Lobel, & Cox, 1996; Watson, Kumar, & Michaelson, 1993). On the other hand are those that have negative findings to share regarding diversity for reasons such as lack of social integration and high turnover (Jackson et al., 1991; O’Reilly, Caldwell, & Barnett, 1989), conflict (Jehn, Northcraft, & Neale, 1999; Mannix & Neale, 2005), and demographic differences
CHAPTER 1– INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
(Alexander, Nuchols, Bloom, & Lee, 1995; Tsui & O’Reilly, 1989). Diversity research reveals a collection of contradictory results concerning the effects of diversity on group outcomes (Barsade & Gibson, 1998; Guzzo & Dickson, 1996; Jackson, Joshi, & Erhardt, 2003; Mannix & Neale, 2005; McLeod, Lobel, & Cox, 1996; Williams & O’Reilly, 1998) leaving us with an inconclusive stance about effects of diversity or when and what type of diversity is helpful. Diversity is not often realized in...