The 1840s and 1890s saw an expansion of American territory, as a result of several economic, political, and cultural factors. The expansionist movements of the 1840s and 1890s were similar in their justifications, but the arguments against each differed greatly.
Both expansion movements used virtually identical justifications for acquiring lands, but the conditions were radically different.
- manifest destiny / International Darwinism
- hunger for new land population growth / declaration of the close of the frontier
- economic advantages trade with Asia from California / trade with new colonies helping businesses
- prevent other countries from gaining land in CA or Oregon / need to rival other imperialist countries.
Opponents of expansion in the 1840s did not oppose gaining new lands, but opposed the possible spread of slavery in the new territories.
- Slavery used extensively by Texas settlers, major source of conflict with Mexico
- Annexation put off by Jackson and Van Buren due to concerns of Northerners.
- Northerners upset by boundary line of Oregon, wanted to expand there and gain potential free states.
- Wilmot Proviso attempted to ban, failed
The opposition to expansion in the 1890s was based on concerns of controlling people far away of different cultures, but not opposed to the economic benefits.
- extension of Constitutional rights to colonies left to Congress
- Cuban opposition to being a US protectorate
- Hawaiian native opposition to annexation
- Filipino Insurrection