Exp. 2a-B Solubility

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Exp. 2A-D Solubility (pp.13-20)
In this experiment, I will be determining/investigating the solubility of different solvents, or more precisely, the extent to which a substance is soluble or insoluble (Part A and B). Another goal of this experiment will be determining miscible (liquids that will mix homogeneously) and immiscible (liquids that do not mix homogeneously) parts in liquids (Part C). Part D of the experiment will be looking at solubility as well, the solubility of organic acids and bases. Part A

Benzophenone
Test Tube Number| Grams of Benzophenone Used (≈0.0400g)| Soluble, Insoluble, or Partially Soluble?| #1 (1mL of H2O)| 0.0406g| Insoluble|
#2 (1mL of Ethyl Alcohol)| 0.0402g| Soluble|
#3 (1mL of Hexane)| 0.0406g| Soluble|

Although benzophenone has the ability to form two hydrogen bonds from the two lone pair electrons on the oxygen of the carbonyl group, its overall polarity is low, making it a nonpolar

solvent. Now that we’ve established that benzophenone is largely nonpolar, it makes sense to say that it is insoluble when mixed with water due to the fact that water is a very polar molecule. Looking at the structure of ethyl alcohol, we can note that there is a polar hydroxyl group present. However, since most of the molecule is composed of hydrocarbons, ethyl alcohol is also nonpolar, thus, allowing it to mix homogeneously with both polar and nonpolar substances. This we see is true because nonpolar benzophenone and ethyl alcohol are soluble. Finally, since hexane is composed of hydrocarbons only, we know that it is a nonpolar molecule, thus allowing it to mix homogeneously with benzophenone. Biphenyl

Test Tube Number| Grams of Biphenyl Used (≈0.0400g)| Soluble, Insoluble, or Partially Soluble?| #1 (1mL of H2O)| 0.0430g| Insoluble|
#2 (1mL of Ethyl Alcohol)| 0.0410g| Partially Soluble|
#3 (1mL of Hexane)| 0.0420g| Soluble|

When looking at the structure of biphenyl, we can see that it is...
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