Lesson 2: Exit Discussion Kimberly Johnson TR 11:10am – 12:35pm
The era from 2660-2160 B.C.E. in Egyptian history is known as the Old Kingdom. During this period, Egypt was a unified kingdom ruled by a King, the pharaoh. The territory of Egypt covered from the Nile delta, south along the Nile River, to the second stretch of waterfalls and rapids, or cataract. Directly to the south, along the Nile River, was the region of Nubia. Nubia was not unified, and consisted of smaller Nubian Kingdoms. As authors Jerry H. Bentley and Herbert F. Ziegler state, “Nubians wanted to protect their independence from their large and powerful neighbor to the north. Their desire kept them strongly interested in Egypt.” (53) Egyptians were just as interested in Nubia. They desired products that could only be attained from the south, and were wary of a threat to Egypt from Nubia. These interests led to explorers and diplomats to travel between the two regions. According to the writer Miriam Lichtheim, “one of these diplomats, was a royal official, who became governor of Upper Egypt, named Harkhuf.” (1: 25-27) He made four expeditions to Nubia. Harkhuf wrote an autobiography mentioning these expeditions, and as common Egyptian tradition, his autobiography was carved into his tomb. Harkhuf’s autobiography clearly depicts the interest of the Egyptians of the Old Kingdom in Nubia and the series of actions they took to achieve knowledge of this southern region. His autobiography illuminated the Egyptian’s interest through his recollections stated of requests, means, and the retributions of his travels. In parallel, it unveiled the methods by which Egyptians acquired knowledge about Nubia in Harkhuf’s same remembrance of his expeditions. Harkhuf’s autobiography mentions his four expeditions to Nubia. It also includes a letter from the young pharaoh Neferkare. He...
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