This article aims to touch the broad, and ever developing discussion of post modern theories and their application today. The main focus will fall on Holland's theory of vocational personalities in work environment and the Edgar Scheine's notion of career anchors and how both theories fit within the modern career paths.
Holland has proposed six different vocational personality types. Any person resembles each of the six types to varying degree. HIs theory of occupational choice maintains that in choosing a career, people prefer jobs where they can be around others who are like them. They search for environment that will let them use their skills and abilities and express their attitudes and values, while taking on enjoyable problems and roles. Behaviour is determined by an interaction between personality and environment. The occupation of a certain individual is based solely on the work environment and their personality type.Holland has developed easy to use self assessment devise where people can check which occupation they appear to be best suited to. On the other hand Scheine describes his theory of career anchor as an aspect of self concept that one would not give up, even forced to make a different choice.(Arnold 1997) Schein (1990) argued that people enter work with particular career anchors summarizing their hopes and expectations, occupational interests, values and skills, which constrain their career decisions Five career anchors were proposed from Schein. (Millward 2005)
To be able to evaluate both theories above with reference to the current modern career paths it is necessary to outline how our lives and effectively our careers have changed during the past century.
Back in the 20th century the most important factors affecting the labour force were, the children's welfare, the laws of labour,the population shift from rural to urban and how to prepare the young generation for labour force participation. The social and economic situation boosted the evolution of vocational psychology. In fact the theory of the vocational psychology was successfully applied in practice as scholars and practitioners brought out the real concerns of youngsters entering the workforce, returning veterans or unemployed people during economic depression.(Swanson,2000) Later during the century there used to be a secure employment and stable organisations offering a solid ground for building a life and creating a future. (Savickas,2009)
In contrast the new millennium presented the humanity with some extreme challenges. Today what makes the headlines in the news is what everyone calls the economic downturn and all the effects that came with it. The nature of the work force is changing. The time of the "dejobbing" and "insecure workers" is fact. (Savickas, 2009) A major issue becomes the change of the traditional forms of career and their replacement with new more flexible substitutes. Globalisation, outsourcing,downsizing,shift from permanent employment to part time employment,technological development, increasing diversity in terms of race,sex and part time versus full time jobs. People find it difficult to adjust their skills as fast as the career climate is changing. The new job market in this hectic economy requires that we no longer work for one company for many years developing career, but as an individual selling services and skills to a series of employers.(Savickas,2009) All those changes are affecting the work world of 21st century by creating the feelings of anxiety and insecurity among individuals.Careers are becoming less predictable.One could hear often words as " You are good enough to become a partner or a managing director " the problem is you have to find how to get there by your own. Companies are no longer willing to invest in training as they could...