Exercise and Heart

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Contents
Aim:2
Hypothesis:2
Risk assessment:2
Variables:2
Method:3
Results Table4
Analysis4
Graph5
Evaluation6
Improvements6

The effect of exercise on the heart rate and breathing rate
Introduction
Aim: Finding out how exercise affects the heart rate and breathing rate. Hypothesis: Exercise exists in different forms and has many benefits; it improves the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, development of bones, strengthens muscles and the lungs capacity plus it can make you feel good. There are different exercises and intensities for different benefits. Lower intensity exercises are not designed to work the body as hard. As a result less oxygen is needed and less waste is in excess. However even low intensity exercises require more substances to be carried out than if your body was in its resting state. Therefore different concentrations of substances are required for different intensities of exercise. In effect this affects your heart and breathing rate. (Jones & Jones, 1984) (Ross, 1978)

Null Hypothesis: Exercise has no effect on the heart rate or breathing rate.

The overall rate of the heart and breathing increases during exercise. The heart beats faster, allowing blood to supply substances required by the cells to respire. Oxygen is needed to replace the oxygen used up in respiring cells, while at the same time the cells produce carbon dioxide that needs to be removed from the body. The heart rate increases to pump blood around the body quicker, ensuring oxygen is constantly dissociating from the blood to the cells. At the same time the breathing rate increases to increase the rate of gaseous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and remove excess waste from the body as soon as possible. (Jones & Jones, 1984) (Ross, 1978)

“Exercise, although essential both for early, sudden muscle contraction ( a few minutes ) and for prolonged, sustained exercise, muscle food stores are not enough. The contracting muscle must also take up glucose from the blood.” (Ross, 1978, p. 705)

“Aerobic exercises improve lung capacity. Exercising muscles need extra oxygen, which is supplied to them by breathing faster and more deeply. If you regularly do exercise which make your muscles demand extra oxygen, called aerobic exercise, this helps your respiratory system to become efficient at getting oxygen into your blood.” (Jones and Jones, 1984, p. 279).

Risk assessment:
Chemical/Procedure| Hazard| Precaution|
* Stepping off and on exercise step| * Slipping off step| * Dry shoes * Appropriate support| * Exercising| * Pulling muscles * Feinting/Blackout * Spraining ankles| * Appropriate stretching before exercise * Supervised by professional * Don’t force ankles onto the surfaces * Try to be light on the feet| * Wide breadths of movement| * Inflicting contact on others| * Suitable space for procedure| Variables:

Constant Variables
* Exercise step
* Number of steps taken
* Resting period
* People recording pulse and breathing rate
* Temperature of room
Independent Variables
* Exercise
Dependent Variables
* Heart rate
* Breathing rate
Method:
1. Record the pulse (preferably from the wrist) for 30 seconds of the person participating before exercise. 2. Double the number of pulses – this gives an estimate of the heart beats per minute 3. Place hand on the lower back of the person participating before the exercise and count the number of times the person inhales and exhales in 30 seconds then double it – this is the breathing rate per minute. 4. These are the heart rate and breathing rate at rest.

5. Explain to the participant the concepts of both exercises: a. Slow 20: Slowly climb onto and off the step for doing 20 steps in total. b. Fast 20: Climb onto and off the step as fast as possible for 20 steps in total. 6. After the participant has done the “Slow 20”...
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