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Cardio Pulmonary Practical

The main aim of the practical was to assess, what affects did light exercise have on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, tidal volume, minute volume and percentage of gas. The readings were taken before exercise, during exercise and after exercise. Blood pressure is defined as the amount of pressure exerted on the vessels walls, during blood flow. Blood pressure can be measured using a sphygmomanometer. The upper value indicates the systolic pressure; this is the highest level of pressure obtained. This is usually 120mm Hg in healthy adult. The diastolic blood pressure is the pressure achieved before the aortic valves reopen, which is usually between 70- 80mm (Barbara, J.C. 2005). The heart rate is the number of beats that is pumped by the heart per minute. It’s measured by taking the pulse rate. Respiratory rate is the number of breath exhaled and inhaled in a single breath. Respiratory rate can be measured simply by observing the person’s chest and stomach rise and fall. It is usually measured in breath per minute. Tidal volume is the amount of air inhaled or exhaled in a single breath. In an average human, the tidal volume is about 0.5litres, while the lungs can hold up to ten times more than this. Minute volume, is the amount of air or fluid moved per minute. When working with human subject, many considerations need to be taken, firstly the age of the subject. Marieb et al. outlines, ‘foetuses have a higher blood pressure than that of an adult’. Sex is also another factor that determine heart rate. Females usually have a higher heart rate (72-80beats/min), than that of a male (64-72beats/min). Medical history and cultural background. If a person suffers from cardiovascular disease known as tachycardia, they would have an abnormally fast heart rate, while subjecting suffering from bradycardia, would have the opposite effect. Body temperature can also contribute towards an increase or a decrease...
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