Exercise 38 Anatomy of the Digestive System

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NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________


Anatomy of the Digestive System

General Histological Plan of the Alimentary Canal
1. The general anatomical features of the alimentary canal are listed below. Fill in the table to complete the information. Subdivisions of the layer (if applicable)

Wall layer mucosa submucosa muscularis externa serosa or adventitia

Major functions

epithelium, lamina propria,
(not applicable)

secretion, absorption protection protection, vascular supply for mucosa churning, mixing protection, anchoring

circular and longitudinal
(not applicable)

Organs of the Alimentary Canal
2. The tubelike digestive system canal that extends from the mouth to the anus is known as the canal or the digestive tract. it has an innermost layer that runs obliquely alimentary

3. How is the muscularis externa of the stomach modified?


_______________________________________ How does this modification relate to the function of the stomach? lets the stomach ix, churn and move food along trac

while breaking it down and mixing it in gastric juices ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ squamous cells in the esophagus to columna 4. What transition in epithelial type exists at the gastroesophageal junction? in the gastric mucosa ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ simple columnar absorb. How do the epithelia of these two organs relate to their specific functions? Stratified squamous protect ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ 5. Differentiate between the colon and the large intestine. large intestine extend from the ileocecal valve to the anus, bu

the colon is divided into the ascending, descending, sigmoid colon ____________________________________________________________



6. Match the items in column B with the descriptive statements in column A. Column A l y o c n w h d b s h p i v e j x b v k t r u f z y a g , t 1. 2. 3. 4. , v 6. 7. structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall fingerlike extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area for absorption large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine 5. regions that break down foodstuffs mechanically mobile organ that manipulates food in the mouth and initiates swallowing conduit for both air and food y , 8. three structures continuous with and representing modifications of the peritoneum the “gullet”; no digestive/absorptive function Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. anus appendix circular folds esophagus frenulum greater omentum hard palate haustra ileocecal valve large intestine lesser omentum mesentery


10. folds of the gastric mucosa 11. 12. 13. sacculations of the large intestine projections of the plasma membrane of a mucosal epithelial cell valve at the junction of the small and large intestines

m. microvilli n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. oral cavity parietal peritoneum Peyer’s patches pharynx pyloric valve rugae small intestine soft palate stomach

14. primary region of food and water absorption 15. membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth

16. absorbs water and forms feces 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. area between the teeth and lips/cheeks wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum initiates protein digestion structure attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach organ distal to the stomach valve controlling food movement from the stomach into the duodenum posterosuperior boundary of...
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