Exercise 30 Anatomy of the Heart

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S H E E T
EXERCISE

30
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Anatomy of the Heart
Gross Anatomy of the Human Heart
1. An anterior view of the heart is shown here. Match each structure listed on the left with the correct letter in the figure. G

1. right atrium 2. right ventricle 3. left atrium

a b

J R U B K D N A

c

o

4. left ventricle 5. superior vena cava 6. inferior vena cava 7. ascending aorta 8. aortic arch 9. brachiocephalic artery 10. left common carotid artery 11. left subclavian artery 12. pulmonary trunk 13. right pulmonary artery 14. left pulmonary artery 15. ligamentum arteriosum 16. right pulmonary veins 17. left pulmonary veins 18. right coronary artery 19. anterior cardiac vein d e f g h s t p q r

L

i u j v w k

M

E C

x

P

O F Q H I

T S W X

20. left coronary artery 21. circumflex artery 22. anterior interventricular artery 23. apex of heart 24. great cardiac vein

V

201

2. What is the function of the fluid that fills the pericardial sac?

Fluid in the pericardial sac allows the heart to beat in a

relatively frictionless environment, to reduce friction during heart activity

3. Match the terms in the key to the descriptions provided below.

F
A H E A G

Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. atria coronary arteries coronary sinus endocardium epicardium mediastinum myocardium ventricles

1. location of the heart in the thorax 2. superior heart chambers 3. inferior heart chambers 4. visceral pericardium 5. “anterooms” of the heart 6. equals cardiac muscle 7. provide nutrient blood to the heart muscle 8. lining of the heart chambers 9. actual “pumps” of the heart 10. drains blood into the right atrium

B D G C

4. What is the function of the valves found in the heart?

The valves enforce a one-way blood flow through the heart

chambers; and prevents back-flow of blood
5. What is the role of the chordae tendineae?
Their called heart strings, & anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls

Pulmonary, Systemic, and Cardiac Circulations
6. A simple schematic of a so-called general circulation is shown below. What part of the circulation is missing from this diagram? Pulmonary circulation

Add to the diagram as best you can to make it depict a complete

systemic/pulmonary circulation. Label the systemic and pulmonary circulations.

pulmonary veins
heart pulm. arteries
Heart

Systemic arteries Systemic capillaries Systemic veins

pulmonary circulation

systemic sirculation

202

Review Sheet 30

7. Differentiate clearly between the roles of the pulmonary and systemic circulations.

Differences include pulmonary

circulation is strictly to provide gas exchange in the lungs, whereas the systematic circulation provides the functional blood supply to all body tissues. 8. Complete the following scheme of circulation of a red blood cell in the human body. Right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the

right ventricle

, through the

pulmonary
, to the capillary of the heart, through

semilunar
beds of the lungs, to the the

valve to the pulmonary trunk, to the

pulmonary arteries

pulmonary veins
valve to the

, to the

left atrium
, through the

bicuspid aorta

left ventrical

aortic semilunar
of the , and

valve to the

, to the systemic arteries, to the

capillary beds

tissues, to the systemic veins, to the

superior vena cava

,

inferior vena cava

coronary sinus & cardiac veins

entering the right atrium of the heart.

9. If the mitral valve does not close properly, which circulation is affected?

pulmonary circulation

10. Why might a thrombus (blood clot) in the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery cause sudden death?

Microscopic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle
11. How would you distinguish the structure of cardiac muscle from that of skeletal muscle?

12. Add the...
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