Exercise 16

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1. What are the two groups whose results are reflected by the t ratios in Tables 2 and 3? The group studied was twenty-one elderly women with an average age of 77. Ninety percent of the participants had one or more chronic diseases. Table two represents the programs effects on cardiovascular risk factors and table 3 represents program effects on health behaviors. The t ratios reflected on these tables represents the test results between the pretest and 3 months and again between the pretest and 6 months.

2. Which t ratio in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between the pretest and 3 months outcomes? Is this t ratio statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. The t ratio of 4.14 (total risk score) represents the greatest relative between the pretest and 3 months outcomes. This t ratio is statistically significant because in this study, p is less than 0.05.

3. Which t ratio listed in Table 3 represents the smallest relative difference between the pretest and 3 months? Is this t ratio statistically significant? What does this result mean? The t ratio -0.65 (Stress management) represents the smallest relative difference between the pretest and 3 months. The ratio is not considered statistically significant because the value is not denoted by an asterisk and p is not less than 0.05.

4. What are the assumptions for conducting a t-test for dependent groups in a study? Which of these assumptions do you think were met by this study? The assumptions for the t-test for dependent groups are: the distribution of scores is normal or approximately normally defined, the depended variables are measures at interval or ratio levels, the groups examined for difference are dependent based on matching or subjects serving as their own control, and the difference between the paired scores are independent. The dependent variables are measured with t ratios from pretest to 3 months and from pretest to 6 months. Also, the...
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