30 March 2013
Executions of May the Third
The Executions of the third of May, 1808 is a painting created by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya. The painting is 8 feet 9 inches by 13 feet 4 inches The Executions of the third of May shows an execution of many Spanish people by French soldiers during The Peninsular War. This painting was done at a time when Goya was mourning the loss of his beloved wife and reflecting on a war that had shredded his mother land. To truly understand the painting you must look at what was going on at the time and the history behind the war and operation of the Spanish by the French and at Francisco Goya himself. The Peninsular War
The Peninsular War was a military conflict between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807. Then, in 1808, France turned on its ally, Spain. The war lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814. To the Spanish the war is known as the Guerra de la Independencia Española, or the Spanish War of Independence.The conflict is regarded by some historians as one of the first national wars and is significant for the emergence of large scale guerrilla warfare. The French occupation destroyed the Spanish government, which split into disagreeing regional military governments. In 1810 a reconstituted national government fortified itself in Cádiz but proved unable to recruit, train, or equip actual armies due to being under siege. British and Portuguese forces secured Portugal, using it as a safe position from which to launch campaigns against the French army while Spanish guerrillas bled the occupiers. Combined allied forces prevented Napoleon's marshals from subduing the rebellious Spanish provinces. The many years of fighting in Spain gradually wore down France's Grande Armée. While the French armies were often victorious in battle, their communications and supplies were severely tested and their units were frequently cut off, harassed, or overwhelmed by the supporters of Spain. The Spanish armies, though repeatedly beaten and driven to the borders, could not be stamped out and continued to insistently pursue the French.This drain on French resources led to the conflict being termed the Spanish Ulcer. The British force under the 1st Duke of Wellington, which became the most experienced and steady force in the British army and a constant threatening presence, guarded Portugal and campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the new Portuguese army. Allied to the British, the demoralized Portuguese army underwent extensive reorganizing, retraining, and refitting under the command of British Generals who had been appointed commander-in-chief of the Portuguese forces by the exiled Portuguese royal family, and fought as part of a combined Anglo-Portuguese army under Wellington. In 1812, as Napoleon embarked upon his disastrous invasion of Russia, a combined Allied army under Wellesley pushed into Spain and took Madrid. Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult led the exhausted and demoralized French forces in a fighting withdrawal across the Pyrenees and into France during the winter of 1813–1814.War and revolution against Napoleon's occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, later a cornerstone of European liberalism. The burden of war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain and ushered in an era of social confusion, political instability, and economic inactivity. The Executions of the third of May
The Executions of the third of May, 1808 is a painting created by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya. The painting is 8 feet 9 inches by 13 feet 4 inches The Executions of the third of May shows an execution of many Spanish people by French soldiers. There are around 8 soldiers, looking away from you, firing on Spanish...