Example of a Literature Review

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This article is deals with research on advertising, that is, how consumers respond to specific words or content used in the advertisements. This article focuses on the controversy between two measures, recall and recognition. Where, recall is the ability to remember something experienced earlier and recognition is the knowledge of the previously experienced stimuli. There are certain questions that strike our mind when we think about these two terms, such as, if these two measures are consistent enough to be called measures of memory, and which one of these two measures is more useful. There has been extensive research on how these two principals of memory are a important for advertising. Earlier researches believed that a consumer mind goes through many stages because of memory, when they are exposed to the stimuli in an advertisement. Therefore, we can conclude that when the consumer is first exposed to an advertisement, the consumer first perceives it, then processes it and finally memorizes it. It is said that the memory’s process of depreciating is really fast in the first stage, however, gradually it slows down. According to Ebbinghaus, that is the reason old ads are immortal , they are just temporarily forgotten but as soon as you are exposed to something like that, you instantly remember them. Recently, Krugman(1972,1977) has researched on the concept of advertisement memory in relationship with his theory of how involvement affects the process of learning. Krugman says that what is stored in our memory is verbal , that is, in words such as the print advertisement, can be obtained when needed by the recall method. However, in the case of television commercials, we are dealing with vision, and images, and in order to recall that, recognition is a more appropriate measure. Researchers also believe that recall and recognition can be differentiated on the basis of certain distinct principals
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