Examine the reasons for the changes in the demography in the UK

Topics: Demography, Population, Life expectancy Pages: 2 (895 words) Published: March 1, 2015
Examine the reasons for the changes in the demography in the UK (24 marks) Demography is the study of human populations, looking at their size, composition and distribution. The demography in the UK has changed due to the birth rate and death rates decreasing and the life expectancy and migration levels increasing. The population has increased in size in the UK in 1901 UK population was 38.2m by 2006 it had grown to 60.6m. What has driven this population growth is natural change, every year since 1901 there’s been more births than deaths however since 2004 migration has also been a major factor and now it is the key reason as to why we don’t have a declining population. The birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year. Since 1900 the birth rate has decreased, in 1900 it was 28.7 and now it is 10.7. A key reason for this is that the position of women has changed and they now have legal equality with men, so they are free to go out to work and because of this women are postponing giving birth so they can have a career and the average age to give birth is now 29.6 so the total fertility rate (the average number of children a women will have during their fertile years) is now lower because women have fewer fertile years left by the time that they start a family so they have fewer children. Another reason that we now have a lower birth rate is because the infant mortality rate (the number of infants who die before their first birthday, per 1000 babies born alive, per year) has fallen due to better healthcare since the invention of the NHS in 1949 and because less babies are dying parents are no longer having insurance babies so they are having less children therefore the birth rate has fallen. A third reason is the change in our views of children, Aires says that childhood is now socially constructed to be a uniquely important time in a child’s life, this has encouraged families to consider the quality of their child’s upbringing so...
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