* Examine the key challenges for public sector management in the global south. Illustrate your answer with contrasting country examples.
Most of the global south countries such as the African countries have attained their independence around the 1950’s and 1960’s. The public sectors which are known as the government sector have set of roles that need to be look after the welfare of the state such as the security, environment, health system, education and so forth. The public sector in the global south has some key issues that need to be tackled. Some of the key challenges that needs tackling is the reduction of poverty, corruption and aid which has been prevailing for a very long time.
Yet, it cannot be easily forgotten to mention the impact of colonialism on the African nations. Colonialism created economic backwardness, international vulnerability and social fragmentation. African leader’s aims became to target issues such as underdevelopment so as to bring about growth and reduction of poverty. (Lewis 1998, Chanzan et al 1999). This essay will address some of the challenges and problems faced by the global south along with methods and approaches that might work illustrating with examples of a country.
In the 1980’s-1990’s importance was very much given to the private sector rather than the public sectors and the state economy management. However now slowly there is state which is seen as accountable and more effective. The African Commission reported recently that Africa’s development had suffered due to lack of accountability and capacity which is the ability to design and deliver policies. (Glennie, J 2008).
The international strategies for developing public sector management have been directed at the civil services reforms through downsizing, improvement in the management and knowledge through training. (Amoako, 2003)
The public sector of the global south when analysed closely after their independence show that there is ineffectiveness of accountability and lack of transparency. The African countries for instance have faced crisis and pressures from international institutions for their public state reforms. South Africa is known for its level of corruption that the locals call it ‘tenderpreneur’ where one benefits from having tender contracts from the government or having self-interest benefits. These Individuals enrich themselves through government tender contracts, mostly based on personal connections and corrupt relationships - although outright bribery might also take place - and sometimes involving an elected or politically appointed staff holding business interests (Bloom, 2010). Corruption is so widespread that the system has failed its people.
In 1990’s African countries welcomed the private sector investments in markets. This had created the role of the state to be less involved in markets and focus on the implementation of policy reforms which meant the appropriate legal framework to be in place. The donors for instance suggested good governance programs which can assist the state to be more efficient and responsive. This includes empowering its citizens, protection of the vulnerable people, narrow the gap between the rich and the poor, encouragement of integration and cultural diversity. It was a struggle for the African nations (global south) and they have encountered a formidable constraints such as lack of resource, being underdeveloped, poor institutions in place, climate change and high growth of population. (Ayee, 2005).
The other key challenge is spending of public funds which are presumed to rarely trickle down to the citizens. It is been seen that most of the development of the public sector come from foreign aids especially from the international institutions such as the World Bank and the IMF bank. Even though most of the aid assists Africa in the development and progress of the public sector, many international institutions also see its limitations. For...
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