AUGUST 7, 2011
Examination of Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychology was not discovered until 1879, at the University of Psychology, in Leipzig, Germany, by Wilhelm Wundt. Much has transpired before the discovery such as Theodor Fechner published The Elements of Psychophysics in 1860, and in 1874, Wilhelm Wundt published the Principles of Physiological Psychology. Both of the publications were needed to state the methods of physiology and physics as an answer to questions in psychology. Wundt believed research and studies were essential to know individual and group differences in sensation and perception, and the reaction time of humans. Although clinical psychology and psychiatry sometimes is often used interchangeably it is a difference in the role and work of the two. This paper will explain the history and evolving nature of clinical psychology, explain the role of research and statistics in psychology, and explain the difference between clinical psychology and other mental health professions (Plante, 2011). Although clinical psychology was discovered in 1879, it did not become a specialty area until 1896, when Lightner Witmer opened the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania. He was the first psychologist to help an individual with a particular problem using his understand of the principles of human behavior, and many of his principles are still in use today. The University of Pennsylvania started offering formal courses in clinical psychology in 1904. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology was published by Morton Price in 1906. The first professional journal entitled The Psychological Clinic began by Witmer in 1907, which started clinical psychology (Plante, 2011). Henri Beaunis and Alfred Binet founded the first psychology laboratory in France in 1885. Binet and Simon developed an intelligent test that identified children with mental disabilities not grasping knowledge from classroom instruction. In 1908, the Binet-Simon scale was developed for the use of schools. Henry Goddard learned of the Binet-Simon scale and took it back to the United States for translation and use. The Stanford-Binet was revised and renamed in 1916, by Lewis Terman, a Stanford University psychologist. Although Sigmund Freud had published a book entitled The Interpretation of Dreams in the 1900s his psychoanalytic perspective was not accepted in the United States until 1909 (Plante, 2011). In 1917, a committee formed by Robert Yerkes, APA president, developed an intelligence test for the Army to test recruits based on their intellectual and psychological functions. The Army Alpha and Army Beta intelligence test were capable of testing large groups of recruits and thus tested approximately two million people by 1918. The Psychoneurotic Inventory test developed by Robert Woodworth in 1917 was also used to test recruits. This was a break for psychologists to be known for their testing skills and by 1940 more than 500 psychological tests, verbal, nonverbal, personality, and psychological and career interest and vocational skill test were available for use. No prerequisite was needed to become a clinical psychologist in the early 1940s. Most clinical psychologist earned a BA but not a PhD or MA; the requirement was to have a few courses in psychological testing, child development, and abnormal psychology. There was a split from the APA among some clinicians in 1937, to form a new organization the American Association of Applied Psychology (AAAP). The split only lasted until 1945 and the AAAP rejoined the APA. The book “The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology” was first published in 1937; however, it was originally published in 1936, by Chauncey Louttit, entitled the Journal of Consulting Psychology (Plante, 2011). World War II was another break for clinical psychologist. More recruit testing was required;...