1. What are the major rock groups?
-Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
2. The Columbia Plateau basalts (floor basalts) issued from fissures, which are now preserved as? -Dikes
3. Remove crystals from an andesitic magma and you will get? -A more felsic residual melt
4. Which of the following types of volcanoes is typically the largest in terms of overall volume? -Shield Volcano
5. What minerals are involved in the continuous part of Bowen’s Reaction Series? -Plagioclase Feldspar
6. Which of the following minerals (as shown by their chemical formulae) has a neutral (zero) charge given that Si= +4, Al= +3, Ca= +2, O= -2? -CaSi2Al2O8
7. The differentiation of magmas due to removal of crystal is known as? -Crystal Fractionation
8. Which of the following atoms has a net charge of negative one? -5 protons and 6 electrons
9. The most common mineral or mineral group in the Earth’s crust is? -Feldspar
10. Felsic rocks are?
-Have higher silica content than mafic rocks
11. Polymorphs are?
-Minerals with the same chemical composition
12. The basic constituents of all matter are?
13. The most common elements in Earth’s crust in terms of weight are? -Oxygen (O) and Silicon (Si)
14. Which of the following descriptions best fits the rock texture name “glassy”? -No crystals are observed
15. Rocks are defined as?
-Aggregates of one or more minerals and/or glass
16. Devils Tower, a famous landmark/landform of the western Great Plains is? - A volcanic deposit, largely the remnants of a volcanic conduit
17. Which of the following volcanoes is most likely to contain pillow lava? -Deep-sea volcano
18. What is the international scientific term for a lava flow with a rough surface? -aa
19. The most common type of rock produced in Iceland are?
20. The most abundant gas emitted by volcanoes are?
-Water vapor (H2O)
21. A common rock composed largely of potassium (K) feldspar, quartz and lesser amounts of biotite, muscovite or hornblende is known as: -Granite
22. A mineral is defined as?
-Any naturally occurring inorganic crystalline material with a definite structure, composition and characteristic physical properties
23. Atoms consist of?
-Electrons, protons and neutrons
24. The hardest and softest minerals on the Moh's Hardness Scale are? -Diamond and talc
25. Which of the following will lower the melting point of rocks? -Increase the water content
26. Fissure eruptions are typically associated with which rock or magma type? -Mafic
27. Which of the following is not a mineral in the geologic sense? -Kidney stone
28. Complete melting of ultra-mafic mantle rocks produces which rock type? -Ultra-mafic rocks
29. Identify the correct and complete order going from the lowest in silica to the highest in silica (from left to right): -Ultra-mafic, mafic, intermediate, felsic
30. The opposite process of partial melting is called?
31. Which of the following properties is never used to identify minerals? -Temperature
32. Melting of the upper mantle at Mid-ocean ridges generates what extrusive rock type? -Basalt
33. Which of the following is a mafic intrusive rock?
34. Which of the following plate tectonic settings does not typically produce granite? -Mid-ocean ridge
35. The rock cycle describes how?
-Different types of rocks form and break down
36. The process whereby magma composition changes due the introduction of solid rock is known as? -Assimilation
37. The easiest way to distinguish between an intrusive and an extrusive rock is on the basis of overall grain? -Size
38. The basic building block of all silicate minerals is called? -Silica tetrahedron
39. Removal of crystals from a melt will leave a residual melt that, in terms of chemical composition, is? -More felsic
40. The process of partial melting involves?
-The preferential melting and separation of Si-rich magmas from mafic...
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