Disease caused by the Environmental exposure
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In epidemiology, environmental disease is disease caused by environmental factors that are not transmitted genetically or by infection. Apart from the true monogenic genetic disorders, environmental diseases may determine the development of disease in those genetically predisposed to a particular condition. Stress, physical and mental abuse, diet, exposure to toxins, pathogens, radiation, and chemicals found in almost all personal care products and household cleaners are possible causes of a large segment of non-hereditary disease. If a disease process is concluded to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factor influences, its etiological origin can be referred to as having a multifactorial pattern. There are many different types of environmental disease including: * Lifestyle disease such as cardiovascular disease, diseases caused by substance abuse such as alcoholism, and smoking-related disease * Disease caused by physical factors in the environment, such as skin cancer caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight * Disease caused by exposure to chemicals in the environment such as toxic metals * These diseases can also be mutated and can thrive in the unnatural environment through rubbish that isn't discarded and no sewerage systems. These factors can hurt a nation or an individual quite easily.
Categories of environmental disease
* First, there are those caused by the ancient metals: lead and mercury. * Then there are those caused by the other metals: arsenic, phosphorus, and zinc. * The newer metals can also cause environmental disease: beryllium, cadmium, chromium, manganese, nickel, cobalt, osmium, platinum, selenium, tellurium, thallium, uranium, and vanadium. * Additionally, there are environmental diseases caused by the aromatic carbon compounds including : benzene, hexachlorocyclohexane, toluene diisocyanate, phenol, pentachlorophenol,quinone and hydroquinone. Also included are the aromatic nitro-, amino-, and pyridilium-deratives: nitrobenzene, dinitrobenzene, trinitrotoluene, paramethylaminophenol sulfate (Metol), dinitro-ortho-cresol, aniline,trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl), hexanitrodiphenylamine (aurantia), phenylenediamine[disambiguation needed], and parquet. The aliphatic carbon compounds can also cause environmental disease. Included in these are methanol, nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, dimethylnitrosamine, and the halogenated hydrocarbons: methyl, methyl bromide, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, and the chlorinated naphthalene. Also included are glycols: ethylene chlorohydrins and diethylene dioxide as well as carbon, acrylonitrile, acryl amide, and vinyl chloride. * Other important chemical causes of environmental diseases are the noxious gases which can be categorized as: Simple asphyxiates, chemical asphyxiates, and irritant gases. The simple asphixiants are nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide. The chemical asphyxiates are carbon monoxide, sulfuretted hydrogen and hydrogen cyanide. The irritant gases are sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, chlorine, phosgene, and fluorine and its compounds, which include luroine and hydrofluoric acid, fluorspar, fluorapatite, cryolite, and organic fluorine compounds.
While many infectious diseases are caused by human-to-human transmission, others are caused by microorganisms that exist in the outside environment. Scientists from a variety of fields, including medicine and the environment, must work together to address the challenges posed by these environmental pathogens, according to a new report, From Outside to Inside: Environmental Microorganisms as Human Pathogens, released today by the American Academy of Microbiology. "The key difference between environmental...