Surveying is defined as use science, art and technology of determining relative position of points on, above or beneath the surface of the earth, or establishing such points. However, surveying can be regarded as the discipline which encompasses all methods for gathering and processing information about the physical earth and environment.
Evolution of Surveying:
The oldest historical records in existence today which bear directly on the subject of surveying state this science had its beginning in Egypt. Herodotus recorded that sesortris (1400 B.C.) divide the land of Egypt into plots for purpose of taxation, as consequence of the work, early Greed thinkers developed the science of geometry. Their advance, however was chiefly along the lines of pure science, hereon stands up prominently for applying science to surveying. He was the author of several important treatises of in tersest to surveyors.
One of the first pieces of surveying equipments recorded “The Diopter”. For many years hereon’s work was the most authoritative among Greek and Egyptian surveyors.
Significant development in the art of surveying came from the practical minded Romans. The Roman Surveyor and engineer Frontinus work and essay was the pioneer for surveying and was used as standards for many years.
During the middle ages, Greek and Roman science was kept alive by the Arabs. Little progress was made in the art of surveying, and the only writings pertaining to it were “Practical Geometry”. In the thirteenth century von piso wrote “Practica Geometria”. Which contains instructions on surveying. Early civilization assumed the earth to be a flat surface, but by nothing the earth circular shadow on the moon during lunar eclipses and watching ships gradually disappears as the sailed towards the horizon, it was slowly deduced that the planets actually curved in all directions.
In the eighteenth and...