Evolution of Safety Management
The aviation industry is an organization that contains too many moving parts to control. The industry has developed a stigma of blood priority, meaning that corrective action is not taken until the loss of life has occurred. “No human endeavor or human made system can be free from risk and error.” (FAA, 2007) Therefore the elimination of accidents is virtually impossible; the evolution of safety management is an ongoing effort of safeguarding the industry and remaining proactively in control of safety opportunities. Early aviation pioneers had little to no safety regulation, practical experience, or engineering knowledge to guide them. As the industry matured regulation, and improvements in technology served as the first phase of improving safety. They’ve proven to contribute significant gains to the industry. The next phase of improving safety consisted of human performance that would further improve the goal of safety, Cockpit Resource Management (CRM), and Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) where paramount to the control of the human factor. Each approach has led to significant gains in safety. However, preventative action against accidents will never cease to exist. So the question for the aviation community is, “what is the next step?” (FAA, 2010) The answer is what FAA calls Safety Management Systems (SMS) which would integrate, “A businesslike approach to managing safety risk, it includes systematic procedures, practices, and policies for the management of safety (including safety policy, safety risk management, safety assurance, and safety promotion)” (FAA, 2007) SMS is currently in its infancy and is being developed, researched, analyzed, and potentially implemented as part of 14 CFR part 139. (FAA, 2010) “The FAA supports harmonization of international standards and has worked to make U.S. aviation safety regulations consistent with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards and recommended practices. We intend to implement SMS at U.S. airports in a way that complements the requirements of 14 CFR Part 139, Certification of Airports. Rulemaking we are now considering the best way to introduce an SMS requirement to the more than 560 U.S. airports certificated under Part 139. In late 2010, we plan to issue a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) about SMS and request public comment.” (FAA, 2010) Taming safety in the aviation industry is very hard to achieve, although great gain has been accomplished, the presence of gaps still exists. James Reason once said “Safety is like a guerilla war in which you are never able to declare total victory.” (FAA, 2007) Realistically the total elimination of aircraft accidents is in-accurate, but with a program that focuses solely on safety and risk assessment, the eradication of safety hazards are sure to diminish substantially. The purpose of this research paper is to identify a management problem within the aviation industry. The implementation of SMS into the industry is significant to filling in the gaps that exist within safety. Various sources, research, and analytical data will be used to define and introduce feasibility of a SMS and its four pillars, and what essential role they play: (safety policy, safety risk management, safety assurance, and safety promotion). Intensive analytical review of FAA’s Advisory Circular, AC 150/5200-37 Intro to Safety Management Systems for Airport Operators 2007, Airport Cooperative research Program (ACRP) volumes one and two, AC 120-92 Introduction to SMS for Air Operators, and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annexes 6, 11, and 14 will be used to provide the methodology and reason of the broad based system for both interior and exterior possible implementation of Safety Management Systems, into the FAA’s Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR’s) Airport certification is granted through the vigorous adherence of 14 CFR Part 139, currently airports have an obligation to...
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