The definitions by different management thinkers are as follows: • Management is the accomplishment of results through the efforts of other people. (Lawrence A. Appley)
• Management is the art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. (Koontz H.)
• Management is a process of planning organizing, actuating and controlling to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources. (Terry G.)
• Management is the process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organizations through systematic, coordinated, cooperative human effort. (McFarland)
• It is the coordination of all resources through the process of planning organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain stated objectives. (Sisk)
Management has also been defined as a decision-making, rule-making and rule enforcing body. According to Professor Moore, management means decision-making. Appley called it personnel administration. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, we can broadly define the term thus: management is concerned with resources, tasks and goals. It is the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling to accomplish organizational objectives through the coordinated use of human and material resources.
• Early management theory consisted of numerous attempts at getting to know these newcomers to industrial life at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century in Europe and united states.
- Scientific management
- Classical organization theory
- Behavioral school and management science.
➢ Frederick Taylor & Scientific Management
• Frederick w Taylor (1986-1915) rested his philosophy on four basic principles. 1. The development of a true science of management so that the best method for performing each task could be determined. 2. The Scientific selection of workers so that the each worker would be given responsibility for the task for which he or she was best suited. 3. The scientific education and development of workers.
4. Intimate friendly cooperation between management and labor.
Scientific management theory arose in part from the need to increase productivity. In the united states especially, skilled labor was in short supply at the beginning of the twentieth century. The only way to expand the productivity was to raise the efficiency of workers. Therefore, Frederick W.Taylor, Henry Gantt, and Frank and Lillian Gilberth devised the body of principles known as scientific management theory • Taylor contended that the success of these principles required “a complete mental revolution” on the part of management and labor. •Rather than quarrel over profits both side should increase production, by so doing ,he believed profits would rise to such an extend that labor have to fight over them. •In short taylor believed that management and labor had common interest in increasing productivity.
1. Taylor based his management system on production line time studies. Instead of relying on traditional work methods, he analyzed and timed steel workers movements on a series of jobs.
2. Using time study he broke each job down into its components and designed the...