Evolution of Disease
Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle Cell Anemia is a disease that which the red blood cells form an abnormal sickle or crescents shape. Red blood cells are very important to the human body because they carry oxygen throughout the body. The main causes of Sickle cell is when the cells in the body mutate into abnormal cell called haemoglobin S. Haemoglobin S causes the red blood cells to become sickle shaped, rigid. This causes to make it more difficult for the cells to flow the vein to deliver the oxygen. Sickled cells can also stick to walls of the vein that can cause blood clotting which leads to less blood flow which can lead to organ damage, pain and infection. The disease is passed through families so people can inherit the sickle cell gene when only one parent has the sickle cell gene the child can have sickle cell trait where the child has only minor traits of the disease and like a normal life. When both parents have the sickle cell gene the child has to suffer through the symptoms of sickle cell anemia. The symptoms do not show until the person is 4 months old. Most patients that have sickle cell anemia have painful episodes called crises which can last from hours to days. The episodes are very painful especially to the bones of the back and the chest. Patents can have many crises in one year or only have one crisis per year. Some other symptoms can be fatigue, paleness, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin), blood clotting and painful joints caused by arthritis. Sighs and tests that can diagnose sickle cell anemia are bilirubin, blood oxygen, complete blood count, serum potassium. Treatments that help manage and control the symptoms. And limit the numbers of crises. Patients with sickle cell anemia need ongoing treatment even during the time not having painful crisis. Treatments that can help are blood transfusion, pain medicines and plenty of fluids. Bone marrow or stem cell transplants can sure...
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