Prepared by: Ian Dominic Mallillin
Teacher: Ms. Lanie Pabilona
I. EVOLUTION OF MAN:
Evolution – Change over a long period of time
* Charles Darwin’s Theory:
His book was published on 1859 with the title of “On the origin of the Species of Man” This book stressed that man and all other species on earth were products of a long process of evolution. All species are related to each other and evolved over a long period of time. He pointed out that changes occurred among them through: Mutation – occurrence of some changes in form due to the changes of the structure of the gene. Natural Selection – The environment has much to do with this process; example of Darwin: A dark skinned individual can easily survive in a hot tropical climate; naturally, this environment will produce a group of dark skinned people – which according to Darwin is the reason why there are different races. Isolation and Adaptation – Simple as, if a person lived in isolation for a long period of time; he adapted himself to the area resulting to a noticeable amount of change.
* Who are these scientists who study about the past?
1. Archeologists - who learn about early people by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements 2. Anthropologists – studies culture or people’s way of life. They re-create or establish a picture of early peoples’ cultural behavior 3. Paleontologists – studies human fossils which are evidences of early life
* How do scientists gather information about the past?
1. Written Documents
3. Archaeological Dig (One of the richest sources of clues to the prehistoric way of life) 4. Artifacts (fossils, teeth, skull bones, tools, jewelry)
* Dyropithecus- 40 million years ago
Believed to be the ancestors of both living ape and man due to dental patterns; found 14 million – 20 million years ago
* Ramapithecus- 14 million years ago
More advanced primate that has adopted an upright posture and can use his front limbs for simple tasks. Found in Siwalik Hills, Northern India.
* Australopithecus Africanus – 3.3 to 2.5 million years ago First member of the Homo Group
Brain was not large as the modern man
He can walk on two legs and is up to 4-5 ft. tall.
Tools include sharp pebbles and stones
Found in Taungs South Africa
* Homo Habilis – 2.2 million years ago
Called as Man of Skill and handy man ( They are called like this because the tools found by scientist besides them revealed that they used these tools to cut meat and crack open bones because the stone blade made of lava rocks could butcher big animal meat.) Had a brain size of 750 cu cm
Have dentures that are more human
Regarded as the ancestor of Homo erectus
Found in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania – East Africa
* Homo Erectus – 500,000 years ago
1,200 cc of brain with developed jaws and facial structure. Some anthropologists believed that they were more intelligent and adaptable species than the Homo Habilis They also believed that this Man used their intelligence to develop technology – ways of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet their needs. Believed to be skillful hunters because of the sophisticated tools that they had. They are the first hominids to migrate to India, China, Southeast Asia and Europe. They were the first to use fire to provide them warmth, cook food and frighten away animals (Invented Fire) They might have also developed the beginnings of spoken language. Examples of these are the Java man, called Pithecanthropus Erectus, discovered by Eugene Dubois in 1892; the Peking man called Sinanthropus Pekinensis discovered in 1926; has a significant increase in height (157 cm)
* Homo Sapiens – 250,000 years ago
The species named for modern humans
Called as Wise Men because they had much larger brains than the Homo Erectus Found in...