Evolution and Pragmatism

Topics: Evolution, Ethics, Natural selection Pages: 13 (4757 words) Published: April 27, 2011
Before I start with my Essay, I have to denote that this Essay consist of 2 different parts. As an initially I will declare Pragmatism with its philosophical essentials. In the second part Pragmatism will take up hand as an ethical theory. In the last page you are able to read about Conclusion part which defines my own result and what I exactly understood from that Essay. Thanks in advance…

CONTENTS: (Part 1)
1. Pragmatism
2. Pragmatism As a Theory of Meaning
3. Pragmatism As a Theory of Inquiry
4. Pragmatism As a Theory of Truth
5. Pragmatism As a Theory of Ethics

CONTENTS: (Part 2)
1. Pragmatic Ethics As a Descriptive Theory
2. Pragmatic Ethics As a Normative Ethics
3. Conclusions

Recently development shows us the Pragmatism is likely the theory of a meaning, an inquiry, a truth and an ethics. In that aspect Pragmatism can be declared as cohesion between different opinions. Furthermore Pragmatism can be a bridge which balances those differences and get those theories in to synthesis. It is be against of Preconception, Dogmatism and Authoritative solutions. But in a contrary way, Pragmatism considers importance of pluralism, collective notion and humanism. Thus Pragmatism is being as an evolutionary liberal philosophy. Pragmatism is being developed mainly by Charles Sanders Pierce, William James and John Dewey. In generally Pragmatism considered in a different way as a Person do anything whatever he/she wants in manner of his profit. But that phenomenon cannot be defined in one sentence. Actually Pragmatism can be divided into 4 different kind of theory as considered above in the first paragraph. Therefore meaning of Pragmatism considered in that different kind of aspects. PRAGMATISM AS A THEORY OF MEANING

Pragmatism discussed as a theory of meaning by one of its developer from Charles Sanders Peirce. According to him, any opinion of us about stuff comes from the noticeable effects of that stuff. As an example a book of Kirchhoff which has been published with name of Analytical Mechanics being criticized by Peirce. In that book according to Kirchhoff a Person can understand the effects of Power but it is invisible. But Peirce said that if we truly know about the effects of Power, we therefore know the entire happening situation which is mentioned by existence of Power and nothing more required to know. Therefore according to Pragmatist meaning of a concept appears by the help of action, situation or etc… It doesn’t make a cost that whatever we thought/designed about a concept. So the real worth of that concept will be defined by help of relationship of a Person with its environment. Result of our experiments will tell us about the real worth of those concepts. Although Peirce was the founder of Pragmatism, actually that philosophy became a famous over the World by contribution of William James. James’s Pragmatism is differing from Peirce’s in 3 manners. First of all according to Peirce, Pragmatism is not totally but as essentially consists of a theory of meaning. But this vision didn’t accept by James due to his implementation of Pragmatism into metaphysical aspects. Those different opinions depend on transferring of James’s attention from meanings into affects. As an example he didn’t only think about scalded hand under the fire also he thought that how should be reacted when a fire been seen. PRAGMATISM AS A THEORY OF INQUIRY

Pragmatism can be seen as a theory of inquiry. According to Pragmatist, a Person interrogates the meaning of concepts only when some other influences/threats affects into its opinion. In that situation that Person who has threatened from its environment starts to adopt against those threats. Therefore inquiry being defined by Peirce as transferring effort from suspicion into belief. He says; if suspicion has been started a state of belief has also been started. Therefore according to him purpose of inquiry is a settlement of opinion. As happens...
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