NAME : MUHAMMAD ATIF WAHEED
ROLL # 10I-0207
The Evolution of the Human
The universe is constructed from a multitude of various materials. It is dynamic in form and shape due to a multitude of various processes and interactions between these materials. To the human, however, in his need to establish his place and purpose in the universe, the most important material is biological and the most important process is evolution, far it is only here that the human can learn to understand himself, an understanding that is vital to his survival.
Wise men, psychologists, philosophers and theologians have surmised and conjectured about the human over the centuries, and still do, but the truth about the human may be found only through factual knowledge. That factual knowledge lies in a process called evolution. The human is what evolution made him.
| HOMO HABILISThe first Homo2.2-1.6 million years agoThis magnificent re-creation is by Professor Grover Krantz
Summary of FindingsMan has been a tribal animal since he first walked erect, more than four million years ago. With the impediment of being bipedal, he could not out-climb or outrun his predators. Only through tribal cooperation could he hold his predators at bay. For two million years, the early hominid was a herd/tribal animal, primarily a herd herbivore. During the next two million years the human was a tribal hunter/warrior. He still is. All of the human's social drives developed long before he developed intellectually. They are, therefore, instinctive. Such instincts as mother-love, compassion, cooperation, curiosity, inventiveness and competitiveness are ancient and embedded in the human. They were all necessary for the survival of the human and pre-human. Since human social drives are instinctive (not intellectual), they can not be modified through education (presentation of knowledge for future assimilation and use). As with all other higher order animals, however, proper behavior may be obtained through training (edict and explanation followed by enforcement).Background and IntroductionThe direct lineage from the ancestor of both man and the modern apes to modern man is not known. Evidence is increasing. Thousands of relics fit the general pattern. Some controversy exists on the time of this common ancestor to both ape and human, but it is believed to be about 5.5 million years ago. A key fossil record near that time is Ramapithecus, which was believed to be an early hominid for many years, but is now considered an ancient ape that lived near the fork in our common lineage. Ramapithecus is now thought to be an ancestor of the modern apes.From a genome viewpoint, the difference between modern man and the modern apes is quite small, about 2 percent. From a physical viewpoint, the greatest difference is in locomotion. The human walks upright. It is generally thought that this came about when the ancient hominid adopted the edge of the forest and plain and adapted to a life under the trees as opposed to in them. Fossil evidence shows that this bipedal adaptation was completed quite early, perhaps as early as four million years ago, long before we looked like or thought like we do today. Facial feature changes toward the modern appearance came much later. The facial characteristics of modern man are about 100,000 years old. The faces of earlier hominid were much more apelike.From a cultural viewpoint, modern man and the other apes are quite similar in some respects. Sexual practices of modern humans are quite similar to the chimpanzee (although stoutly denied by some), but with far more homosexual activity. Although homosexual play is common among the apes, a totally homosexual ape is rare. It is estimated that about 10% of the human population is so oriented. The modern human's trend toward family dissolution places the human only a few percentage points from that of the...
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