Evoked R-states with Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching
Psychology 1100 051
The present article summarizes Ghoncheh and Smith’s (2004) 5 week study of the evoked effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching on R-states. Smith’s (1999a, 1999b, 2001, 2002) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes 15 psychological relaxation-related states (R-States): Sleepiness, Disengagement, Physical Relaxation, Mental Quiet, Rested/Refreshed, At Ease/At Peace, Energized, Aware, Joy, Thankfulness and Love, Prayerfulness, Childlike Innocence, Awe and Wonder, Mystery, and Timeless/Boundless/Infinite. Smith’s theory (1999a, 1999b, 2001, 2002) suggests “that different approaches to relaxation have different positive psychological effects” (as cited by Ghoncheh & Smith, 2004, p.132) and that through sustaining passive simple focus different R-states will be evoked with different methods of relaxation (as cited by Ghoncheh & Smith, 2004). For health professionals, there are six major relaxation methods (Lehrer & Woolfolk, 1993; Smith, 1999a): progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), the most common approach for clinical psychologists; yoga (hatha) stretching, the most common approach for the general public (Smith, 1999a); autogenic training; breathing exercises; imagery; and meditation. The assumption that all methods induce equal responses has led most professionals to depend on one or two methods (Smith, 1999b) (as cited by Ghoncheh & Smith, 2004). Benson (1975) proposes that all relaxation techniques are effectively the same in response whereas Davidson and Schwartz’s (1976) research suggests that techniques can be divided into 2 groups; psychologically targeted and physically targeted interventions. Both studies suggest that techniques can be grouped into categories producing similar psychological effects (as cited by Ghoncheh & Smith, 2004). However numerous studies support the contradictory...
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